32) The conflict between these three views of federalism peaked during the winter of 1832 to 1833, when the nullifiers proved only partially successful in establishing their vision while managing to defer part of the issue.
For the nullifiers, federal-state relations required political, not legal, settlements.
For his part, Madison rejected the secessionist ideas of Calhoun and the Nullifiers
Despite the accusations by Southern Jacksonians that nullifiers
, states rights men, and other elements of the fledgling Whig opposition were manipulating the abolition crisis for political advantage, the meetings appear to have been nonpartisan affairs.
Due to the often subtle distinctions among holdouts, nullifiers, and nondeliberating jurors, a judge could dismiss a juror without knowing that the excused juror was a holdout.
Just because a judge cannot dismiss a holdout does not also necessarily mean that the judge should not be able to question the juror to determine whether he or she is a holdout, a nullifier, or a nondeliberating juror.
Dworkin might distinguish the case of the white southern nullifiers
in the same way that he addresses the difference between conscientious draft objectors and "sincere and ardent segregationists [who] believe[d] that the civil rights laws and decisions [were] unconstitutional.
Jefferson had mentioned the word "nullification" in the Kentucky resolutions, which the Carolina nullifiers later borrowed, but he gave no indication of nullification as the elaborate political action devised by Calhoun.
Their political thought formed an important legacy for Calhoun and the nullifiers in South Carolina, even though they rejected nullification as an aberration rather than a fruition of states' rights theory.
Polk here is repeating Jackson's famous 1830 Jefferson Day toast in Charleston challenging the South Carolina nullifiers
106) From the nullifiers
in the 1830s to the Republicans in the 1870s to southern segregationists in the 1950s, the theory that the courts had no more than a coordinate ability to interpret the Constitution, and could not bind the other branches of the federal government or the state government, remained vibrant.
may have overestimated the likelihood of a negotiated settlement.