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50) Friars had first launched widespread preaching in thirteenth-century towns, and Observant friars would emerge as star performers in the fifteenth, the preaching tours of San Bernardino and John of Capistrano legendary in Italy, so too John Brugman in the Low Countries, along with other regional figures.
In the 1420s-1430s the cult of the Holy Name spread through Italy, championed by the Franciscan Observant Bernardino of Siena, critiqued by others including the humanist Ambrogio Traversari.
46) See James Mixson, Poverty's Proprietors: Ownership and Mortal Sin at the Origins of the Observant Movement (Leiden: Brill, forthcoming 2009).
He notes only briefly the connection between Observant preachers, the Monti di Pieta and anti-Semitism.
They were both leading members of the observant movement, that is, the movement for reform, within the Order of Preachers.
The early observant position on poverty caused tremendous strife within the order--one need only think of the better known conflict between spiritual and conventual Franciscans to appreciate the divisions that disagreements over poverty could generate in a religious order--and, from all appearances, would have condemned the reform movement to ultimate failure.
In May 1509 die Senate allotted 200 ducats to observant convents to pray for victory on behalf of the city; Primhak, 50.
In the Veneto, the success of the Observants may be linked to the Venetian aristocracy's particularly receptive attitude to ecclesiastical reform movements in general.
61) It was at this meeting that Pope Eugene IV, a strong supporter of the reformers, tried to impose Albert of Sarteano, one of the four so-called "Pillars of the Observants," on the order as its next Minister General.
A similar state existed among the Dominicans (166 monasteries with 2,092 friars), along with the Observant Franciscans (117 cloisters with 2,359 friars), called Bernardines in Poland.
A memoriale written by the nuns of Santa Maria di Monteluce at Perugia in order to preserve their history for future sisters, clarifies the system of artistic patronage in fifteenth-century houses of Observant Poor Clares.
22) To understand their private attitudes toward art and devotions during the Quattrocento, we must turn to the writings and paintings created by the abbess at another Franciscan Observant convent, the Corpus Domini at Bologna.