If the mix of occupations were held fixed, the average wage would have declined 0.6 percent due to declines in within-occupation wages.
In each state, increases in the share of employment in higher-wage occupations pushed the average wage up, but in Ohio a 3.5 percent decline in the within-occupation wage was enough to make the average wage in the state fall.
Once we created this unique data set for 464 occupations, we combined the different components into a future labor shortages index.
Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, some of the occupations that appear to be the tightest presently are occupations that do not require a bachelor's degree.
In recent years, many macro-labor models of tasks and occupations
have equated workers' occupations
with their skill levels (see the review of Acemoglu and Autor, 2011).
Workers with a professional degree (78.6 percent) were much more likely to hold a certification or license than those with a master's (42.9 percent) or doctoral (54.6 percent) degree, probably because many workers with a professional degree are employed in legal occupations
or in healthcare occupations
, where obtaining a license is common.
The chart shows selected occupations
that have more than one-third of workers ages 55 and older in which BLS projects average to much faster than average employment growth over the decade for workers of all ages.
$51.34 $106,776 $28.22 $56,685
All of these considerations generally make it impossible to definitively set a single, minimum level of education required for each occupation
. Instead, the available data should be used as a guide to generalize common education requirements of occupations
The measures proposed here tease out the significant differences between occupations
that can make understanding the match between field of study and occupation
upon graduation meaningful.
To support this idea, Leive cites the following: Pierce's  concept of cooccupation, an occupation
that requires synchrony within the occupational patterns of a cohabitating group; Zemke and Clark , emphasizing the crucial role of the environment in the construction of occupation
, especially the family environment for children; Esdaile and Olson , noting that if occupational problems occur, the family dynamic is affected, including the orchestration of caregiver-child cooccupations and other familial roles; and Evans and Rodger , noting that the degree of synchronization between the caregiver and child impacts the construction of everyday occupations