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In this excerpt the authors incorrectly assumed that a larger odds ratio would imply a higher PAR, which, in turn, would give rise to a larger relative risk.
The usual maximum likelihood estimator of odds ratio is defined as
Three studies provided data on the use of metronidazole, which proved to have the highest associated risk for new cases of IBD, with a pooled odds ratio of 5.
Another case-control study on 219 cases and 794 randomly selected population controls from France15 reported that cigarette smokers had 5 times higher risk of getting the bladder cancer as compared to the non- smokers with an odds ratio of 5.
4, while one study looking at IBD and lupus in adults showed an odds ratio of just 1.
Compared with privately insured children, the odds ratio for children with Medicaid was 2.
The odds ratios for early childhood death in those born extremely preterm (from 22 to 27 weeks' gestation) were 6.
Count converts to proportion or ratio (a ratio scale without intervals) and into odds ratio.
Corresponding to these three measures of disease occurrence, there are three principal ratio measures of effect that can be used in incidence studies (Pearce 1993): the rate ratio, the risk ratio, and the incidence odds ratio.
No difference, for example, corresponds to an absolute difference of zero or an odds ratio of 1.
However, both male and female office-based professionals and clerical and administrative staff had an odds ratio of just one for developing the condition.
One study, entitle "Nanobacterial Epidemiology, Inflammation & Coronary Artery Disease Risk" is designed to evaluate the hypotheses that Antibodies and/or Antigens to Nanobacteria are associated with: A) chronic inflammation, B) are present more frequently in patients with documented (by coronary angiography) coronary artery disease than in patients with normal coronary arteries and C) when considered singularly and in conjunction with positive responses to six other pathogens, the odds ratio of predicting coronary artery disease is increased.

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