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Fault

Neglect of care; an act to which blame or censure is attached. Fault implies any Negligence, error, or defect of judgment.

Fault has been held to embrace a refusal to perform an action that one is legally obligated to do, such as the failure to make a payment when due.

fault

one of the central concepts in the law of tort or delict. A legal system can look at harmful conduct in different ways. It can focus on the interest infringed and declare it a tort to occupy another's property, for example. However, this produces results that certainly cause moral problems and thus eventually cause legal problems. So where a person inadvertently infringes another's interest, the law has to decide whether to penalize or not. Generally, the more advanced a legal system, the more it is likely to take this into account. Thus, Roman law achieved this result in the early years of the first millennium and English law began to do so towards the end of the second. In the 19th century especially, the proposition began to be put in reverse, it being said that there would be no liability without fault, fault being necessary but not necessarily sufficient to establish liability. Fault had the benefit of comprising most existing categories of case where the plaintiff deliberately harmed the defendant, but it also allowed cases where the defendant had been careless to be included. Fault became associated with intentional wrongdoing or recklessness, which was its equivalent, and also with certain instances of carelessness.

In civilian systems, fault in this sense of exhibiting less than reasonable care would be sufficient to establish a prima facie case but would be subject to limitation in the scope of liability in the basis of the notion of remoteness. English law (and ironically) Scots law took a different course with the decision in Donoghue v. Stevenson 1932 SC (HL) 31, which established that a lack of care would constitute fault but only where there was a pre-existing duty of care. This duty could be found in precedent or arise from the relationship between the parties. Fault became much more a technical concept after that, and its moral aspect diminished. An objective approach to some aspects of the investigation into liability was a further blow to any moral approach. Fault in the later part of the 20th century fell out of favour as a mechanism for achieving many of the things that tort or delict did. Exhortation of citizens is better done through penalties inflicted through an efficient criminal justice system backed by an organized police force. The existence of an insurance industry can make it economically efficient to redirect liability in the direction of the person who is most likely to be able to acquire insurance cover at lowest cost, thus ensuring that injured persons seeking compensation are actually compensated without recourse to general taxation or charity. Statutory strict liability is beginning to appear in the interstices of the law so that fault may become a safety net for cases outside strict liability.

References in periodicals archive ?
As the detection of page fault type is achieved and supported mainly by accessing to both SPT and VM page tables, SMD should have the ability to acquire them.
When processes generate the writing requests, the page fault will be triggered so that SMD can judge whether the writing operations are locating on that area size of 40M by analyzing the destination machine addresses in shadow page table.
Due to the read-only setting, the writing operation on certain memory for the first time will trigger the page fault that will be enabled during the process of subsequent execution.
The underlying system calls protocol hooks before and after page faults, synchronization, and I/O events.
Protocol::fault(int pg) Upcalls to Tapeworm for local Protocol::page_request page faults and requests for (Msg *, int) local data from remote sites.
Simple page faults across the network require 1576 [micro]secs.
If an inline function is invoked from many caller locations, code size can increase, introducing extra page faults. On the other hand, the code for inline function expansions is normally close to the caller, which can decrease the working set size even though the overall code size increases.
The page faults introduced by code and data bloat can be mitigated by adding memory.
Page faults, protection faults, and memory errors are detected by the CAMMU and a trap code is returned to the processor for supervisor action.
Eliminating most RX and SS instructions substantially simplifies the processor implementation by eliminating control logic and especially by simplifying recovery from traps and interrupts such as page faults and memory errors.
b It would seem reasonable to expect that if more pages are allocated to a process, then it should experience fewer page faults. But under the FIFO page-replacement strategy, certain page-reference patterns actually cause more page faults when the number of pages allocated to the process is increased.
a For a given pattern of references and a given page size, the number of page faults is governed by the number of different pages that are accessed.