XBP1 deficiency leads to Paneth cell
death, spontaneous small bowel inflammation, and susceptibility to bacterial infection .
Caption: Figure 3: Biopsies of the stomach show loss of parietal cells, mild glandular disarray, acute inflammation, and apoptotic activity (hematoxylin and eosin, original magnification 200x); biopsies of the duodenum show absence of goblet cells and Paneth cells
(hematoxylin and eosin, original magnification 200x); biopsies of the terminal ileum are similar to the duodenum.
For example, Paneth cells
of the small intestine (and possibly DCS cells of the colon) form a major component of the IESC niche.
Li et al., "Genetic variants synthesize to produce paneth cell
phenotypes that define subtypes of Crohn's disease," Gastroenterology, vol.
(2008) Paneth cells
directly sense gut commensals and maintain homeostasis at the intestinal host-microbial interface.
But the researchers found that when Paneth cells
are removed and replaced with two small molecules involved in cell signalling, these molecules could direct the stem cells to develop into pure populations of proliferating stem cells.
Lefort et al., "Lgr4 is required for Paneth cell
differentiation and maintenance of intestinal stem cells ex vivo," EMBO Reports, vol.
It is produced by various types of cell including granulocyte precursors in the bone marrow, monocytes/ macrophages, various exocrine glands, cartilage, and Paneth cells
of the GIT.3 It selectively targets the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria, hydrolysing the 1,4-beta linkage between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.
The new findings show for the first time that the Paneth cells
, which line the guts of mammals, including humans, play a major role in making sure that bacteria--both good and bad types--remain in the right places.
Some tumors contain small intestinal-type cells, such as Paneth cells
and enterochromaffin cells.
thetaiotaomicron has been shown to regulate the expression of endogenous protein antibiotic production of Ang4 by Paneth cells