1991b, A Quantitative Perspective on the Grammaticalization of Epistemic Parentheticals in English.
Research into conversation in other languages, such as English and Swedish, have shown that lack of complementizer may be a symptom of the fact that personal pronoun + verb patterns do not function as main clauses (Karlsson 2005; Thompson 2002), or that their syntactic status is indeterminate between main clause and parenthetical (Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English 1999 : 197, cf.
1998, Procedural Meaning and Parenthetical Discourse Markers.
Please note that in this case the period goes after the parenthetical citation.
In-text parenthetical citations may contain the author's name or the year of publication of a work (if the author is named in the text and has more than one work in the bibliography) plus the page or other reference numbers; e.
Reference to other works should be made by parenthetical citations: "The history of the text" (Thomas Writer, The Book Cited ).
In elaborating this ideal we also espouse an illocutionary conception of validity and argue that the ideal is one to which English conforms: parenthetical speech act verbs in the first person present indicative active are force indicators in the modified sense.
Urmson (1952) discusses parenthetical expressions in English such as the following:
As Urmson points out the parenthetical clause serves to indicate that the content, that Mary is extremely creative, is being put forth with assertoric force.
Books & Law Reviews--Books, law reviews, and other nonperiodic materials are cited by the full name of the author(s); followed by title of the book (underscored or italicized); the page number and/or section or paragraph designation, if applicable; and a parenthetical with the editor and/or edition information and publication date, for example: Philip J.
Short forms of case citations give the name of only one party, avoiding use of a geographical or governmental unit, and they generally omit the first page of the case, utilizing a pinpoint cite instead, and the parenthetical information concerning the court and year of decision.
When used as signals in citation sentences, they are italicized, but when used as verbs in textual sentences, they should not be italicized and any material that would ordinarily be placed in the parenthetical should be worked into the sentence.