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A possible answer is that the functional equivalence of verbal stimuli and their referents involves processes akin to Pavlovian conditioning (Tonneau, 2001).
Zamble, Mitchell, & Findlay (1986) studied the Pavlovian conditioning of sexual arousal in Long-Evans rats.
In addition, we discussed how operant and Pavlovian conditioning may impact several aspects of asthma care, and how the behavior of clinical providers can be very important in determining how well patients with asthma follow treatment regimes.
Using a baseline Pavlovian conditioning procedure, one member of one class was paired with shock (B1) while one member of the other class was presented without shock (B2).
Although induction was observed for sign-tracking responses, this result does not provide concrete evidence that Pavlovian conditioning can contribute to induction.
In humans, this issue has been studied in predictive learning (Shanks, Charles, Darby, & Azmi, 1998; Williams & Braker, 1999; Young, Wasserman, Johnson, & Jones, 2000), categorization (Kruschke, 1992), multiple cue probabilistic learning (Edgell & Roe, 1995; Kruschke & Johansen, 1999), decision making (Garcia-Retamero & Hoffrage, 2007; Garcia-Retamero, Hoffrage, Dieckmann, & Ramos, in press), and Pavlovian conditioning (Lachnit & Kimmel, 1993; Lachnit, Kinder, & Reinhard, 2002).
Within-compound associations have been well documented in Pavlovian conditioning (e.
Such a change in the value of the liquid-sucrose reinforcer may have occurred if Pavlovian conditioning played a role in the current effect.
A second, and potentially related, possibility is that the induction is the product of Pavlovian conditioning (i.
Over the last half century, accounting for the development of phobic fear in the absence of real threat or danger has occupied the attention of learning theorists, and numerous Pavlovian conditioning preparations have been devised to study the parameters involved (Mackintosh, 1983; see also McNally, 1987, for a review).
FA discrimination has been studied in a major stream of conditioned modulation, learning of hierarchical stimulus relationships in Pavlovian conditioning (see Holland, 1992; Swartzentruber, 1995, for reviews).