Per Quod


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Per Quod

[Latin, Whereby.] With respect to a complaint in a civil action, a phrase that prefaces the recital of the consequences of certain acts as a ground of special harm to the plaintiff.

At Common Law, this term acquired two meanings in the law of Defamation: with respect to slander, it signified that proof of special damages was required; in regard to libel, it meant that proof of extrinsic circumstances was required.

Words that are actionable per quod do not furnish a basis for a lawsuit upon their face but are only litigable because of extrinsic facts showing the circumstances under which they were uttered or the damages ensuing to the defamed party therefrom.

Cross-references

Extrinsic Evidence; Libel and Slander.

PER QUOD, pleading. By which; whereby.
     2. When the plaintiff sues for an injury to his relative rights, as for beating his wife, his child,, or his servant, it is usual to lay the injury with a per quod. In such case, after complaining of the injury, say to the wife, the declaration proceeds, "insomuch that the said E F, (the wife,) by means of the premises, then and there became and was sick, sore, lame, and disordered, and so remained and continued for a long space of time, to wit, hitherto, whereby he, the said A B, (the plaintiff,) lost", &c. 2 Chit. Pl. 422; 3 Bl. Com. 140. It seems that the per quod is not traversable. 1 Saund. 298; 1 Ld. Raym. 410; 2 Keb. 607; 1 Saund. 23, note 5.

References in periodicals archive ?
Adeyekun are suing all the Defendants, individually and collectively, for Violation of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution, Violation of the Celestial Church of Christ's own Policy and Procedures, Defamation Per Quod, Defamation Per Se, Retaliation Promissory Estoppel, Negligence, Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress, Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress, Loss of Consortium and Damages in excess of two million dollars.
Per hunc modum intellige, quod a summa Opifice nulla creatura processit nisi per Verbum aeternum, <<in quo omnia disposuit>>, et per quod produxit non solum creaturas habentes rationem vestigii, sed etiam imaginis, ut eidem assimilari possint per cognitionem et amorem.
Agitur enim de institutione a Concilio Tridentino exoptata, quod decrevit ut in singulis dioecesibus institueretur <<Seminarium perpetuum>> (2), per quod Episcopus posset tirones ad sacerdotium <<alere et religiose educare et ecclesiasticis disciplinis instituere>> (3).
By the time the case reached the High Court, the issues were whether the plaintiff could recover in an action per quod servitum amisit and for pure economic loss in the tort of negligence.
4, 415a 14-23], quod, qui de potentia vel habitu tractaturus est, exordium auspicari debet ab obiecto, unde habitus speciem sortitur et per quod describi debet, ut, qui de sensibus disputationem init, prius debet de sensibili disputare.
Propter quattuor causas: ex solo prima est per quod fertur; secunda ex eodem, si mutatione eius nascitur [.
Illinois distinguishes between two categories of defamation: per se and per quod.
For example, if an action is brought by both the injured worker and the spouse, the portion of the settlement awarded to the spouse for a per quod claim (i.
6 (6:45): "Requiritur enim lumen intellectus agentis, per quod immutabiliter veritatem in rebus mutabilibus cognoscamus, et discernamus ipsas res a similitudinis rerum"; see Bruno, 1991, 2.
34) "Omne igitur quod est post primum ens, cum non sit suum esse, habet esse in aliquo receptum, per quod ipsum esse contrahitur; et sic in quolibet creato aliud est natura rei quae participat ease, et aliud ipsum esse participatum.
non refert an aliud sit per quod quidem quaerimus, quoniam de quo quaeritur idem est.