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Dental hygienists in clinical practice often face challenges managing residual inflamed periodontal pockets during periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT).
* Evidence supports use of subgingival air polishing with a low abrasive powder and a subgingival nozzle in moderate periodontal pockets ([greater than or equal to] 5mm) to remove periodontal pathogens equally as well as hand instruments.
However, in the third case, follow-up for 3 months after completing the root canal revealed a persistent bone defect and periodontal pocket, which indicated the need for a further treatment modality to restore the health of the periodontal tissues.
Deep periodontal pockets, which are associated with infrabony defects, are specific risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss [1, 2].
Clinical periodontal parameters included plaque index (PI)(22), gingival index (GI) (23), PD, clinical attachment level (CAL) and gingival recession (GR).The distance from the free gingival margin to the bottom of the periodontal pocket was defined as PD.
No standard model exists that represents all clinical situations because of the large variation in tooth, dental arch, and alveolar bone anatomy and the different peri-implantitis periodontal pocket structures, bone absorption, degree of inflammation, and implant types found in individual patients.
IL-8 is normally present in health, is released by periodontal pocket ephitelial cells to maintain the cleansing efflux of neutrophils into the gingival sulcus, to keep the low levels of bacteria, by restricting them to the sulcular environment (16,46,47).
It is known that the clinical criteria of severity of periodontal damage use such characteristics as the degree of resorption of the alveolar bone and the periodontal pocket depth.
Laser energy can be delivered though thin flexible fibres or tips, to sites in the periodontal pocket that conventional instrumentation is less able to reach [14].
Note accumulated plaque (a biofilm containing protein and infectious microbes), tartar (hardened plaque), and a periodontal pocket where diseased gum tissue is pulled away from the tooth root.
Black pigmented bacteria in the wall of the periodontal pocket at the beginning and end of the periodontal therapy
Cytokine levels were determined in blood serum and periodontal pocket fluid.

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