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PERTURBATION. This is a technical word which signifies disturbance, or infringement of a right. It is usually applied to the disturbance of pews, or seats in a church. In the ecclesiastical courts actions for these disturbances are technically called "suits for perturbation of seat." 1 Phillim. 323. Vide Pew.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
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Track and intensity of the high-resolution control simulation of Patricia (black) overlaid with the initial condition perturbation ensemble (blue) and the stochastic perturbation ensemble (magenta).
Caption: Figure 11: Representation of results for each method without perturbations.
It is worth noting that [20, 22, 23] have proposed different expressions for extending the calculation of [gamma] in order to take into account all full-vectorial Kerr-type perturbations. Indeed, different definitions of [gamma] are still under discussion and research [24].
The above analysis shows that there are many small-scale perturbations appearing in the numerical simulated SLP and geopotential height after TC making landfall, and they often result in the failure of identifying TC center by using the lowest SLP or geopotential height at 850 hPa.
The study of propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) perturbations has a key role in the astrophysical applications.
Tout est mis en oeuvre, d'apres le directeur de l'eau potable au ministere des ressources en eau, Smain Amirouche, afin d'eviter les perturbations dans l'alimentation de l'eau sur le territoire national.
We deal with the branes intersection problem of (N, [N.sub.f])-strings with D5-branes in flat and curved spaces by treating the relative and overall transverse perturbations. And it will be devoted to extend the research begun in [9, 12, 13].
The transition from a constant or linear response to fuel perturbations for low levels of dilution to a highly nonlinear response as the dilute limit is approached is consistent with the nonlinear response of flame speed to composition, as noted in Kaul [28], This effect is a combination of the dependence of flame speed on composition, which is steep and nonlinear, and the communication through residual gases from one cycle to the next, especially when incomplete combustion occurs at the dilute limit.
This has led some researchers and clinicians to consider the efficacy of 'perturbation' training, which involves unexpected external perturbations during walking (Shapiro & Melzer, 2010) that mimic environmental slips and trips.
These detailed biological models, extending over multiple scales in space and time, will unveil key features of biological systems such as redundancy, modularity and negative feedback that act as sources of robustness against perturbations and internal variability (Dada and Mendes, 2011).

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