The results show just what fraction of the radiation reaches a planet's surface, as a function of the intensity and energy of the source and the thickness of the planetary atmosphere
The findings were made possible by a first-of-its-kind telescope imaging system that allowed the astronomers to pick out the planets amidst the bright glare of their parent star and measure their spectra-the rainbows of light that reveal the chemical signatures of planetary atmospheres
Studying the churning Venusian clouds may improve scientists' understanding of planetary atmospheres
, including how Earth's might behave in the future if current warming trends continue.
Topics addressed by the papers include planetary masses and orbital parameters from radial velocity measurements, terrestrial planets in extrasolar planetary systems, mission requirements in the search for extrasolar planets, possible detection of biomarkers indicating the presence of life on extrasolar planets, the formation of resonant planetary systems, impact of stellar activity on the evolution of planetary atmospheres
and habitability, dynamics of the extrasolar planetary, planets in double stars, the transit method of extrasolar planet detection and analysis, US programs and space missions for extrasolar planet research, and habitable zones in extrasolar planetary systems.
Ionospheres act as a boundary between planetary atmospheres
and space, containing weakly ionized plasmas that are strongly coupled to their neutral atmospheres, but also influenced by the conditions in the space environment.
Clouds often play key roles in planetary atmospheres