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In Friends, Followers and Fractions: A Reader in Political Clientelism.
For a discussion of political clientelism from many case studies around the world, see S.
Political Clientelism in Political Studies: Retrospect and Prospects.
Political clientelism, democracy and market economy.
Lemarchand, "Comparative Political Clientelism: Structure, Process and Optic," in: Political Clientelism, Patronage and Development, Eds S.
For the purposes of this argument, the working definition of political clientelism is deliberately narrow, to highlight the process of transition from clientelistic to other kinds of unequal exchanges that permit somewhat greater associational autonomy.
1 (March 1972): 91-113; Carl Lande, "Networks and Groups in Southeast Asia: Some Observations on the Group Theory of Politics", in Friends, Followers and Factions: A Reader in Political Clientelism, edited by Steffin W.
This paper will account for both long-term and short-term forms of political clientelism.
Most studies concerned with political clientelism have incorporated this distinction between programmatic and clientelistic exchange (Kitschelt 2000, Piattoni 2001, Schaffer 2007, Kitschelt and Wilkinson 2007, Stokes 2009), although not all agreed on the range between these two benchmarks.
Their topics include a typology of corrupt networks, anti-fraud politics in the European Union, the long life of clientelism in southern Italy, the development of political clientelism in 20th-century France, and clientelism's electoral connection and its policy effects in Korea and Japan.
These policies and strategies explain in large part whether after regime change the practice of political clientelism and those who managed state clientelism survived, whether business and labor associations once organized by state corporatism pressed for new relationships with the state, political parties, and each other, and whether ideological political parties whose electoral bases were built on collective appeals could mimic traditional electoral appeals to satisfy old constituents.
If economic reorganization proceeds in Uruguay and Brazil, pervasive political clientelism may no longer be viable.