Modification

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Modification

A change or alteration in existing materials.

Modification generally has the same meaning in the law as it does in common parlance. The term has special significance in the law of contracts and the law of sales.

The parties to a completed and binding contract are free to change the terms of the contract. Changes to a preexisting contract are called contract modifications. If the parties agree to modify the contract, the modification will be enforceable in a court of law.

A contract modification may be either written or oral, with some exceptions. An oral modification is unenforceable if the contract specifies that modifications must be in writing (United States ex rel. Crane Co. v. Progressive Enterprises, Inc., 418 F. Supp. 662 [E.D. Va. 1976]). As a general rule, a modification should be in writing if it increases or decreases the value of the contract by $500 or more.

In contracts between parties who are not merchants, a modification should be supported by some consideration, which is the exchange of value, or something to solidify an agreement. Courts impose this requirement to prevent Fraud and deception in the modification of contracts. Consideration operates as evidence that the parties have agreed to the modification. Without the requirement of consideration, a party to a contract could declare that the contract should be modified or canceled whenever such a demand was advantageous.

In contracts between merchants, a modification need not be supported by consideration. Derived from article 2, section 209, of the Uniform Commercial Code, this rule is designed to honor the intent of commercial parties without requiring the time-consuming technicalities of consideration.

Like any non-merchant, a merchant is free to reject a proposed modification, but a merchant may waive the right to reject a modification by failing to object to the modification. For example, if an electrician doing work as a subcontractor notifies the general contractor that the electrical work will be more expensive than anticipated, the general contractor may be obliged to pay for the extra expenses if she fails to object before the electrician begins the work. There must be a legitimate commercial reason for such a contract modification, and the modification must be reasonable in light of the standards within the particular industry. Courts are free to strike down contract modifications that are brought about by duress or bad faith.

Cross-references

Sales Law.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

modification

n. a change in an existing court order or judgment made necessary by a change in circumstances since the order or judgment was made to cure an error. A motion (petition) to the court for modification is common after divorce judgments because the courts "retain jurisdiction" over matters concerning the children which may need changes such as terms of child support and custody.

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.

MODIFICATION. A change; as the modification of a contract. This may take place at the time of making the contract by a condition, which shall have that effect; for example, if I sell you one thousand bushels of corn, upon condition that any crop shall produce that much, and it produces only eight hundred bushels, the contract is modified, it is for eight hundred bushels, and no more.
     2. It may be modified by the consent of both parties, after it has been made. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 733.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Morgan, Dynamic regulation of the class II transactivator by posttranslational modifications [dissertation], Georgia State University, 2015, http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/biology_diss/157.
Phosphorylation, being one of the most significant posttranslational modifications, plays pivotal role in many biological processes including signal transduction pathways, metabolism, enzyme activities, cell proliferation, and apoptosis [12].
Storey, "Novel control of lactate dehydrogenase from the freeze tolerant wood frog: role of posttranslational modifications," Peer J, vol.
RHES is not an integral membrane protein but associates with the plasma membrane through posttranslational modifications on a CAAX domain [40].
Pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, N-telopeptides, and C-telopeptides are class of degradation molecules which are released systemically during degradation of collagen matrix and bone resorption due to posttranslational modification of collagen.
[29] proposed prothrombotic state induced by oxidative posttranslational modification of fibrinogen while Shacter et al.
Posttranslational modification: The chemical modification of a protein after its translation; extends the range of functions of the protein by attaching to it other biochemical functional groups or by changing the chemical nature of an amino acid.
Whereas protein drugs such as insulin and growth hormone are produced in bacterial cell lines, more complex proteins like erythropoietin or monoclonal antibodies have to be expressed in mammalian cell lines, as their activity depends on correct assembly and posttranslational modification. An added complexity is that post-translational modifications such as glycosylation are not genetically encoded and are therefore not identically reproduced.
Posttranslational modification of proteins; expanding nature's inventory.
Posttranslational modification of proteins is a critical part of molecular medicine.
According to Professor Steven Gygi of Harvard Medical School, 2DE/MS is "best suited to studying posttranslational modification." But where the technique has fallen short has clearly opened up opportunities in the protein separation market.
Furthermore, the association of TM4SF5 with EGFR and integrin [alpha]5 is dynamically coordinated; their affinities for each other depend on intracellular cholesterol levels and posttranslational modification (PTM) level.

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