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Related to Prenatal surgery: spina bifida

SURGERY, med. jur. That part of the healing art which relates to external diseases; their treatment; and, specially, to the manual operations adopted for their cure.
     2. Every lawyer should have some acquaintance with surgery; his knowledge on this subject will be found useful in cases of homicide and wounds.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
During the standard prenatal surgery for spina bifida, surgeons cut open the woman's abdomen and uterus to reach the foetus.
For prenatal diagnosis and management of bilateral hydronephrosis (the indication for the first fetal surgery), for example, very few fetuses will undergo prenatal surgery. Laboratory diagnostic tests were employed for case selection, including fetal measurements: (a) urine Na < 100 mmol/L; (b) urine Cl <90 mmol/L; (c) urine osmolarity <210 mosmol; (d) renal sonographic evaluation; (e) amniotic fluid status; and f) urine output at fetal bladder catheterization.
Just as important, the prenatal surgery completely restored palatal function, which allowed the goats to nurse as soon as they were born and to vocalize without impediments.
Without intervention, the fetuses would surely die--and many died even with prenatal surgery. Given those odds, it made sense to some clinicians and ethicists to pursue an invasive approach.