An initially plausible view maintains that racial profiling is pro tanto
wrong in and of itself by violating a constraint on fair treatment that is generally violated by acts of statistical discrimination based on ascribed characteristics.
The original pro tanto
award to the landowner was $595,000.
Despite their disagreement, Waldron and Weinstein tacitly agree on a contractualist principle of legitimacy, disagreeing solely on the question of where that principle "leads." (31) For Weinstein--although this is not exactly his phrasing--a democracy that excludes citizens from democratic opinion formation pro tanto
dissolves its social contract with them, relieving them of their duty to obey law.
Yet McShane is making a bolder claim: that to respect something may not even be to value it pro tanto
But in any case, whistleblowing always violates a pro tanto
moral duty (ie, a duty we must keep under ordinary circumstances but which may be outweighed on occasion), and it is this fact that accounts for why whistleblowers often fare poorly: not only has the employee harmed the employer's interest, but the employee has harmed that interest while breaking a pro tanto
obligation to the employer, and so the employee's actions seem morally tainted.
The central thesis of this book is that a certain kind of reason--a pro tanto
reason--requires free will, or the ability to do otherwise.
--to a less demanding one, one that simply requires that the thing be pro tanto
good, or good in some respect:
Doorn claims that Rawls makes a distinction between three kinds of justification: political justification (a pro tanto
justification of the political conception), full justification (it deals explicitly with citizens within their own life and with their own comprehensive doctrine), and public justification (justification by political society).
The key to answering the above question will therefore be to understand whether the fact that a critique of someone's deeply held cultural convictions (in a very inclusive sense of 'criticising' that includes rational argument, satire, mockery and ridicule, whether verbal or non--verbal) hurts the criticized person's cultural sensitivity or shows disrespect for her culturally embedded beliefs is in itself a moral pro tanto
reason for refraining from this particular criticism.
For example, Hurd argues that considerations of formal justice and institutional efficiency may well provide officials pro tanto
moral reason to punish the innocent.