Communicating low risk magnitudes: Incidence rates expressed as frequency versus rates expressed as

probability. Risk Analysis, 17, 507-510.

Adjusting behind Transmission Power of Outage

Probability. Adjust behind transmission power of outage probability [P'.sub.outage] to judge whether there is maximum value.

Effects of Random Variables on Stable Reliability

Probability. The reliability probability of each failure mode is studied by changing the mean value of a single random variable.

It would be possible to overlook this element of value judgement if the topic of probability were left at being able to give acceptable answers to questions about the three forms of

probability. But our school syllabus cannot stop there.

This problem illustrates again the calculation of conditional

probability.probability. If the odds are A : B, then the associated probability is

Post hoc Tukey HSD comparisons indicated that rates of delay discounting differed from one another at every

probability. Thus, the participants' responding became significantly more impulsive as the likelihood of obtaining the hypothetical outcome decreased.

It can be seen that the left side of Equation 9 has the same form for the cumulative

probability. Chebyshev's inequality indicates that no matter what the distribution function is, as long as the mean and the variance are known, an upper bound for the cumulative probability can be given by Equation 9.

Classical hypothesis testing is based on this philosophy of

probability. A scientific hypothesis such as "do some people have psychic abilities" is a question about the existing state of the world.

In this paper, we lay emphasis on the effect of the position of the new mutant on its fixation

probability. We give the fixation probability of an EG of single level.

The probabilities that any known natural (pulsars, etc.) or terrestrial (human-designed) source could generate the mysterious waves might be vanishingly small, yet SETI researchers would still compare those, not to a universal probability bound, but to an actual estimate of the extraterrestrial design scenario's

probability. They would calculate the latter by assuming that intelligent embodied extraterrestrial agents would have to evolve and generate the waves within reasonable energy constraints, and that the waves would have to travel from the distant source at the known speed of light within reasonable time constraints given the known age of the universe.