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Two fundamental and troublesome problems seen in lower secondary mathematics classrooms are a limited understanding of the meaning of the equal sign, and a tendency to believe that a pronumeral such as x is an object rather than a quantity.
Hopefully some unexpected side effect of this will deal with the troublesome sin [phi] factor and allow the integral to be evaluated before I run out of different letters to use as pronumerals.
* Treating a pronumeral as a variable in a functional relationship such as y = x + 1 is closely related to a generalised number in a structured situation.
Consider the importance of distinguishing (even for advanced students) a handwritten multiplication symbol from a lower-case x, used as a pronumeral. Similarly, emphasise the need for careful handwriting when using exponents, superscripts, and subscripts--smaller characters, and deliberate raising or lowering, spatially, relative to the main (invisible?) baseline for writing.