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Although the focus of protection motivation theory is on two cognitive appraisals, threat and coping appraisals, Rogers (1983) also suggests environmental or intrapersonal sources that initiate these cognitive appraisal processes.
With Rogers' (1975, 1983) protection motivation theory as the theoretical framework, this study identified determinants of young adolescents' level of online privacy concerns, which subsequently affect their resulting behaviors to protect their privacy.
The majority of prior studies using protection motivation theory have assessed self-efficacy with regard to the perceived ability of the individual to actually carry out the specific adaptive response provided by the intervention program (Maddux and Rogers 1983; Floyd, Prentice-Dunn and Rogers 2000).
As discussed earlier, prior studies using Rogers' protection motivation theory have examined self-efficacy as confidence in one's ability to initiate and implement specific adaptive responses recommended in the intervention program (Maddux and Rogers 1983; Floyd, Prentice-Dunn and Rogers 2000).
Second, we find that self-efficacy has both positive and negative relationships with adaptive and maladaptive online privacy behaviors, respectively, as predicted by protection motivation theory.

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