Asi lo cree Ulpiano, quien sostiene que "Publicani
autem sunt, qui publico fruuntur (nam inde nomen habent), sive fisco vectigal pendant vel tributum consequantur: et omnes, qui quod a fisco conducunt, recte appellantur publicani
(14) Carney (note 4) 23-24 refers to the period following the praetorship in a way that implies prior connections with the publicani
: 'Marius, now a prominent member of a group of wealthy businessmen with connections in Puteoli in Southern Italy, came to be of such importance amongst the publicani
...' There is no direct evidence to show that Marius ever possessed mines in Iberia, the Mariani montes could just as easily have been named after Sex.
Despite the commonalities between the Publicani
's purported beliefs and other contemporary religious dissidents, the sect is noteworthy for several reasons.
Most formidable of all, even if the extent of their influence has been overestimated by some, were the publicani
, rich champions of the original quango state whose interests and sensibilities, so Cicero regularly stressed, required consideration--even when nothing could be more shameful.(82) Not all equestrians could claim equal dignity, and, in fact, they were far from constituting a homogeneous and well-defined group.
Where we can see the Roman publicani
operating, for example in Asia Minor, there is a two-tier system at work: the societates publicanorum made pactiones with the cities, who were then responsible for collecting their own taxes.
The report is by three academics working for a firm called Publicani
against the actions of publicani
in taxes on lands belonging to the god Amphiaraus, contrary to the exemption given by Sulla (Sherk, RDGE no.