In Brazil, debates on race focused on whether acknowledging the existence of genetic categories mirrored earlier debates on racism and racial mixing
. By establishing affirmative action policies that sought to help Afro Brazilians, the Brazilian government acknowledged the existence of racism.
Or we can turn to Frederick Douglass and Langston Hughes to help theorize the multiple meanings of racial mixing
that proliferate outside the circumscriptions of the taxonomic paradigm.
has continued in the Caribbean nation and the financial gap has widened because of the severe economic crisis of the 1990s and despite the subsequent economic liberalization measures undertaken by President Raul Castro.
In fact, then, although both Argolo and Archanjo have opposite, and self-serving, readings of racial mixing
, they both believe biology is the determining factor.
Like Blade, Underworld's plot also centres on racial purity versus racial mixing
, with the Lycans positioned as 'vectors of category transformation', as Haraway would suggest.
Certainly, an implication from our findings is that policy makers and practitioners need to be wary of viewing racial mixing
and mixedness in fixed and essentialised ways when family experience can vary greatly between families, even those who initially seem to share a form of mixing.
Lewis demonstrates how morenos have developed their identity within an understanding of mestizaje, or racial mixing
, the discourse that undergirds Mexican national identity.
By itself, racial mixing
didn't do the trick, but it did mean that the fate of black and white students became intertwined.
For example, the one-drop rule derives from the genetic and social understanding of race as monocentric; it relegates the outcome of any racial mixing
to a "nonwhite" racial status (Davis, 2001; Spencer, 2006; Spickard, 1989).
In the United States, despite the numerous prohibitions on racial mixing
and screeds against miscegenation (a word of American invention), white people did not treat race as a fact of nature but as a product of social interaction.
Sommer does not argue that the novel ultimately proposes racial mixing
or mestizaje as a solution for the crises facing Colombia in the nineteenth century: by "killing off" Maria, Isaacs "seems to be saying that no myth of amalgamation is possible, because the patriarchal world he yearns for will not have it" (202).