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PIGNORIS CAPIO, ROM. civil law. The name given to one of the legis actiones of the Roman law. It consisted chiefly in the taking. of a pledge, and was in fact a mode of execution. It was confined to special cases determined by positive law or by custom, such as taxes, duties, rents, &c., and is comparable in some respects to distresses at common law. The proceeding took place in the presence of a praetor.