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156) Indeed, Alexander and his colleagues describe the War Department as influential in the building of women's reformatories.
In addition to the multifaceted relationship between modern girls and the city that brought 'delinquents' to the attention of the court, Myers also discusses other issues of interest to urban historians including the geography and architecture of domesticity in two Montreal reformatories.
The legislation would allow even primary school children to be sent to reformatories by lowering the minimum age, with Justice Minister Jinen Nagase saying earlier that ''around'' has a range of one year.
Irish Catholic female philanthropists had begun to set up orphanages and reformatories.
The lawyers argued that under monitoring, the teenagers would have a strong chance of being reformed and that they should be given the proper education at reformatories.
Reformers associated with this movement--Mary Carpenter, Matthew Davenport Hill and Sydney Turner--emphasised the excellent results reported from new reformatories for delinquent children in Europe.
The system at the time was run by predominately Jewish and Catholic agencies, which were permitted by law to give preference to children of their own religious and ethnic backgrounds, and black children, like Wilder, were often relegated to dangerous shelter and harsh reformatories.
We spend large sums on jails, reformatories, and penitentiaries.
Reformatories for women represented a significant change in both ideology and practice governing women's treatment in the penal system.
Besides his own research, Schauss cited the work of Stephen Schoenthaler, criminology professor at California State University, Stanislaus, who has done a series of studies at prisons and juvenile reformatories in five states.
But her works remain reactions--through flight, aggression, or eccentric interventions--to the intolerable: poverty in her home town of Naples, rape by her father and her brother, mistreatment in reformatories, her mother's death, a gang rape, life on the street.
Reformatories, hostels, maternity homes, and battered women's shelters all reflect the historical tendency to institutionalize women in order to solve their problems.