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State institutions for the confinement of juvenile delinquents.

Any minor under a certain specified age, generally sixteen, who is guilty of having violated the law or has failed to obey the reasonable directive of his or her parent, guardian, or the court is ordinarily treated as a delinquent under state statute. The purpose of reformatories is to impose punishment for crimes committed by Infants while concurrently rehabilitating the offenders through educational and vocational training so that they will become law-abiding citizens.

The powers of a state to establish and maintain reformatories, as well as the authority of its agencies to do so, are ordinarily contained in constitutional or statutory provisions. Such authority is based upon the sovereign power of the state as Parens Patriae to safeguard the welfare of children within its borders by removing them from harmful environments and putting them in institutions where their development will be supervised.

Reformatories—which are also known as houses of refuge, state vocational institutions, reform schools, juvenile correction centers, and industrial or training schools—are generally not considered prisons. In some states, however, they are part of the prison system with adult inmates.


Juvenile Law.

References in periodicals archive ?
45) Slate pencils and inkbottles excavated reflect daily religious instruction, catechism, writing, reading and arithmetic, which were all commonly timetabled in Catholic reformatories.
For examples of this type of analysis in colonial and former colonial contexts, see the comments by Clement and Hess (1990, 13), when summarizing the conclusions of two essays on the development of juvenile delinquency in modern non-Western contexts (Egypt and Russia): "The juvenile reformatory spread with the influence of Western European countries: Badr-El-Din All demonstrates that Egypt established reformatories a year after becoming a colony of Britain in 1882, and Yoshio Tsujimoto shows that Japan, anxious to gain the respect of western nations also copied the British reformatory system in the 1880s.
3% of prisoners in state prisons or reformatories or federal prisons, (39) a rate that apparently remained relatively stable until the 1980s.
But lawyers and opposition legislators have expressed concern that getting rid of the age requirement could lead to sending underage children to reformatories when they might need rehabilitation through other welfare or educational measures instead.
86) In a classic example of Foucauldian discipline, some reforming inspectors also set up district schools in England, where boys were subject to marching and drilling, and every minute of their day was ruled by the bell; industrial schools, ragged schools and reformatories in Ireland sometimes followed this model.
Borstals were operated by the State (as distinct from reformatories, many of which were operated by charitable bodies) and situated in the country, so as to be able to engage in agricultural and reclamation works.
Rafter argues that reformatories were intended to serve two primary functions: sexual and vocational regulation of young, working-class women.
For example, in New York state in the 1890s, any woman who went to one of the state reformatories could be held for up to five years.
Many of the educated and professional women who worked in the reformatories sought to "uplift" the sexual morality of female inmates.
Wretched, hatless and miserably clad: women and the inebriate reformatories from 1900-1913
He requested the ICRC delegation to present the possible assistance to convert prisons in Yemen to reformatories for getting the convicts acquired some professional skills make them able to integrate into the society.
How did welfare authorities, religious welfare bodies, and heads of reformatories respond to critical comments made by young inmates?