Reformatories


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Reformatories

State institutions for the confinement of juvenile delinquents.

Any minor under a certain specified age, generally sixteen, who is guilty of having violated the law or has failed to obey the reasonable directive of his or her parent, guardian, or the court is ordinarily treated as a delinquent under state statute. The purpose of reformatories is to impose punishment for crimes committed by Infants while concurrently rehabilitating the offenders through educational and vocational training so that they will become law-abiding citizens.

The powers of a state to establish and maintain reformatories, as well as the authority of its agencies to do so, are ordinarily contained in constitutional or statutory provisions. Such authority is based upon the sovereign power of the state as Parens Patriae to safeguard the welfare of children within its borders by removing them from harmful environments and putting them in institutions where their development will be supervised.

Reformatories—which are also known as houses of refuge, state vocational institutions, reform schools, juvenile correction centers, and industrial or training schools—are generally not considered prisons. In some states, however, they are part of the prison system with adult inmates.

Cross-references

Juvenile Law.

References in periodicals archive ?
156) Indeed, Alexander and his colleagues describe the War Department as influential in the building of women's reformatories.
In addition to the multifaceted relationship between modern girls and the city that brought 'delinquents' to the attention of the court, Myers also discusses other issues of interest to urban historians including the geography and architecture of domesticity in two Montreal reformatories.
The legislation would allow even primary school children to be sent to reformatories by lowering the minimum age, with Justice Minister Jinen Nagase saying earlier that ''around'' has a range of one year.
Irish Catholic female philanthropists had begun to set up orphanages and reformatories.
The lawyers argued that under monitoring, the teenagers would have a strong chance of being reformed and that they should be given the proper education at reformatories.
Reformers associated with this movement--Mary Carpenter, Matthew Davenport Hill and Sydney Turner--emphasised the excellent results reported from new reformatories for delinquent children in Europe.
The system at the time was run by predominately Jewish and Catholic agencies, which were permitted by law to give preference to children of their own religious and ethnic backgrounds, and black children, like Wilder, were often relegated to dangerous shelter and harsh reformatories.
We spend large sums on jails, reformatories, and penitentiaries.
Reformatories for women represented a significant change in both ideology and practice governing women's treatment in the penal system.
Besides his own research, Schauss cited the work of Stephen Schoenthaler, criminology professor at California State University, Stanislaus, who has done a series of studies at prisons and juvenile reformatories in five states.
But her works remain reactions--through flight, aggression, or eccentric interventions--to the intolerable: poverty in her home town of Naples, rape by her father and her brother, mistreatment in reformatories, her mother's death, a gang rape, life on the street.
Reformatories, hostels, maternity homes, and battered women's shelters all reflect the historical tendency to institutionalize women in order to solve their problems.