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SURGERY, med. jur. That part of the healing art which relates to external diseases; their treatment; and, specially, to the manual operations adopted for their cure.
     2. Every lawyer should have some acquaintance with surgery; his knowledge on this subject will be found useful in cases of homicide and wounds.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Upon graduation, she completed a residency in ocular disease and refractive surgery.
Majority of patients (70%) were less than 31 years of age who were interested to get good vision without glasses and were not suitable for laser refractive surgery. Mean age of patients was 26.8 years, fig-2.
It is very important as discussed by the worthy speakers about eye refractive errors; we will request council to start cataract and refractive surgery fellowship programs, he assured.
Dr Arbelaez is a highly experienced ophthalmologist and surgeon with specialisation in corneal disorders and refractive surgery. He graduated from Medical School in Colombia and specialised as an ophthalmologist at the prestigious Barraquer Clinic, founded by Jose Ignacio Barraquer, known as the founding father of refractive surgery.
A 47-year-old Caucasian male attended for a consultation in view of having refractive surgery. He was a full-time spectacle wearer since his teenage years and did not like the handling and comfort of contact lenses.
As the director of AEI's Cornea and Refractive Surgery Service, Ang is a renowned Lasik surgeon who specializes in treating patients with nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism and presbyopia (difficulty reading at close distances).
For instance, patients with thin corneas, dry eyes, and other abnormalities cannot undergo refractive surgery. The study, which could lead to treatment for myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and irregular astigmatism, was published May 14 in Nature Photonics.
However, the change in sphericity caused by the ablation ofthe corneal surface in cases of refractive surgery, makes this approach less accurate, given the greater differences in central and paracentral curvatures (2-4).
TERRY KIM, MD, Professor of Ophthalmology; Chief-Cornea and External Disease Division; Director- Refractive Surgery Service, Duke
Such operations, which are also known as refractive surgery or laser vision correction (LVC), correct eye problems such as short sight, long sight and astigmatism, using a laser to reshape the front of the eye, which improves the ability to focus.
Phakic intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, corneal refractive surgery (small incision lenticule extraction and laser in situ keratomileusis), and refractive lens exchange are alternatives for the surgical treatment of high myopia [1].