For example, the British parliamentary democracy, with the presence of the Queen as a ceremonial head stands in sharp contrast to the American and French representative democracies
. The Chinese, Japanese and the Iranian democracies are not similar; and yet, they're all democracies.
Liberal representative democracies
need to reform their voting systems.
First, the efforts constituting such representation have been insufficient to make representative democracies adopt policies even remotely likely to reverse global environmental degradation (Baber and Bartlett, 2005: 2-3).
Ordinarily, norms of inclusiveness and pluralism require representative democracies to allow almost all organised groups to compete for power, with exceptions only for extremists who would undermine the democratic order itself.
Specific topics include dimensions of trust in public administration and their manifestation in online contexts, visions and realities of digital democracy, the adoption of ICTs by British political parties, the role of voter-information websites in representative democracies
, the application of ICTs to implementations of direct democracy, the use of new media for "micro-mobilization," the ways in which ICTs may impede change because of their complexity, ICT-related trends in the transformation of organizations, the influence of large-scale information exchange on addressing social problems, and various issues of implementation.
In representative democracies
outside the United States, generally speaking, the system continues to perform.
Some believe that modern, representative democracies
date back to the early 19th century at least.
And stable representative democracies
do not require disproportionately large standing armies or security forces to impose control on their populations.
At this point, Olivo advances the strong argument that representative democracies
lack the capacity of integrating instruments which connect state and society.
"Low-intensity democracies, elected-but-hard-to-govern democracies (or, in the extreme, ungovernable), representative democracies
, non-liberal or illiberal democracies, imperfect democracies, immature democracies" is how he characterizes them.
This research project hypothesizes that numeric or political minorities in representative democracies
can influence policy through voting and that this influence will be facilitated by single-member districting as the electoral arrangement that provides more control over choosing representation.
He traces this degeneration from Athenian democracy and its fall, through the decoupling of democratic sovereignty and equality by Rousseau and others, the betrayed promises of Bolshevik democracy, and today's liberal-democratic representative democracies
. He then looks at some of the criticisms of representative democracy leveled by advocates of participatory and deliberative democracy, promising his own solution in a second volume titled Democracy as the Political Empowerment of the Citizen: Direct-Deliberative e- Democracy.