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A sudden, tumultuous, and radical transformation of an entire system of government, including its legal and political components.

In many instances, revolutions encompass society as a whole, bringing fundamental change to a culture's economic, religious, and institutional framework. Fundamental change that is incrementally wrought over time is more properly considered evolutionary rather than revolutionary. A revolution also should be contrasted with a coup d'etat, which generally involves the violent ousting of a particular regime or its leaders, but which otherwise leaves intact the culture's political, legal, and economic infrastructure.

In many ways law and revolution occupy polar extremes in a political system. Law serves as one of the principal edifices upon which social order is built. Revolutions, on the other hand, seek to dismantle the existing social order. Legal systems are established in part to replace private forms of justice, such as Self-Help and Vigilantism, which can lead to endless cycles of revenge. Revolutions, conversely, depend on persons who are willing to take law into their own hands.

At the same time, law can serve as the motivating force behind revolutionary activity. In writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson explained that it had become necessary for the colonies to dissolve their formal ties with Great Britain because the king of England had abused his autocratic power by denying Americans their inalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. These rights, Jefferson said, are guaranteed by an unwritten Natural Law. The American Revolution, then, was fought to restore the Rule of Law in the United States, which was not fully accomplished until the power of government was subordinated to the will of the people in the state and federal constitutions.

Along these same lines, John Locke, in his Second Treatise of Government (1690), postulated the right of all citizens to revolt against tyrants who subvert the law and oppress the populace through the wanton use of force and terror. Such tyrannical abuse of power, Locke said, may be resisted because every person is born with the rights to Self-Defense and selfpreservation, which supersede the laws of a despotic sovereign. However, neither Jefferson nor Locke prescribed a formula to determine when governmental behavior becomes sufficiently despotic to justify revolution.

The traditional meaning of the term revolution has been watered down by popular culture. Every day Americans are inundated with talk of revolution. The fitness revolution, the technology revolution, the computer revolution, and the information revolution are just a few examples of the everyday usage of this term. Such common usage has diluted the meaning of revolution to such an extent that it is now virtually synonymous with benign terms such as change, development, and progress.

Yet traditional revolutions are rarely benign. The French Revolution of 1789 is historically associated with the unfettered bloodletting at the guillotine. The twentieth-century revolutions in Russia, Southeast Asia, and Central America were marked by the mass extermination and persecution of political opponents.

These revolutions demonstrate the tension separating power from the rule of law. Following a revolution, members of new regimes are inevitably tempted to "get even" with the leaders of the ousted regime to whom they attribute the commission of horrible acts while in office. Now holding the reins of sovereignty, the new regime has acquired the power to impose an expedient form of justice upon members of the old regime. This form of justice has many faces, including the confiscation of property without a hearing, forcible detention without trial, and the implementation of summary executions.

However, the rule of law requires governments to act in strict accordance with clearly defined and well-established legal procedures and principles. The rule of law disfavors Arbitrary and capricious governmental action. Thus, every revolutionary regime faces a similar dilemma: how to make a deposed regime pay for its tyrannical behavior without committing acts of tyranny itself. The identity and ideological direction of a revolutionary regime is often determined by the manner in which this dilemma is resolved.

Further readings

Berman, Harold. 1983. Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.

O'Kane, Rosemary H.T. 2004. Paths to Democracy: Revolution and Totalitarianism. New York: Routledge.

Wood, Gordon. 1991. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: Vintage Books.


Anarchism; Communism; Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich; Marx, Karl Heinrich.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fuentes makes regular use of Portal's own poetry to convey her thoughts on current affairs, underscoring both Portal's gift with language and her bravery in expressing revolutionary ideas. Portal's journalistic work also features prominently, and Fuentes consistently underscores the added degree of difficulty Portal overcame as a prominent woman in a male-dominated movement, whether with the challenge of protecting her daughter while on the run, or with the social mores that made her an iconoclast for using her voice.
"Eat, Chew, Live" goes on to present three other revolutionary ideas to help you get in tune with your body's need for nutrition, your real hunger signals, and the causes of your overeating.
The trip will allow some of the brightest minds across the country to network with one another to share revolutionary ideas to improve each market.
Capable of immense charm and an engineer with visionary and revolutionary ideas, many still common today, Chapmen also had an air of unscrupulousness, of sailing close to the wind.
Some of these people read newspaper headlines, look into statistics, and walk on the streets everywhere to jump to the bitter conclusion that what remains of the revolutionary ideas of Nasser and his group of colleagues is nothing but memories.
Rhetoric of the week: Defense Minister Ahmad Vahidi says that Iran's visionary and revolutionary ideas are now gaining ground in the Western world.
Mary, Queen of Charity Shops (9.00pm) Erin O'Connor and Peaches Geldof model charity shop finds, and one of Mary Portas's revolutionary ideas proves a step too far for her volunteers.
Peter's revolutionary ideas helped his son win two Olympic 1500m golds, two Olympic silvers in the 800m and break several world records.
He introduced revolutionary ideas to Coe's training and helped him win two Olympic 1,500m golds, two Olympic silvers in the 800m and break several world records.
Clarke's Law of Revolutionary Ideas: Every revolutionary idea--in science, politics, art, or whatever--seems to evoke three stages of reaction.
REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS. Rotor design and shredder wear parts are the dual cornerstones of Riverside Products product line, and the Revolution Rotor is a prime example of the company's emphasis on unique solutions to metal shredding.
We were going to explore some unusual, potentially revolutionary ideas. In short, we were going to try to change the world for the better.

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