Secession


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Related to Secession: Secession War

Secession

The act of withdrawing from membership in a group.

Secession occurs when persons in a country or state declare their independence from the ruling government. When a dissatisfied group secedes, it creates its own form of government in place of the former ruling government. Secessions are serious maneuvers that lead to, or arise from, military conflict.

A secession can affect international relationships as well as the civil peace of the nation from which a group secedes. Most countries consider secession by a town, city, province, or other body to be a criminal offense that warrants retaliation using force. Because the primary mission of most governments is to maximize the comfort and wealth of its citizens, nations jealously guard the land and wealth that they have amassed. In rare cases a government may recognize the independence of a seceding state. This recognition may occur when other countries support the independence of the seceding state. However, for most countries, the involuntary loss of land and wealth is unthinkable.

Most countries have laws that punish persons who secede or attempt to secede. The United States has no specific law on secession, but the federal government and state governments maintain laws that punish Sedition and other forms of insurrection against the government. On the federal level, for example, chapter 115 of title 18 of the U.S. Code Annotated identifies Treason, rebellion, or insurrection, seditious conspiracy, and advocation of the overthrow of the government as criminal offenses punishable by several years of imprisonment and thousands of dollars in fines. These are the types of crimes that can be charged against persons who attempt to secede from the United States.

The U.S. Civil War was the result of the single most ambitious secession in the history of the United States. In February 1861 South Carolina seceded from the Union, and Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, and Tennessee followed suit shortly thereafter. These states seceded because they objected to attempts by the federal government to abolish the enslavement of black people. The mass secession led to four years of civil war and the death of hundreds of thousands of people. The seceding states established their own government called the Confederate States of America and fought the U.S. military forces with their own army. When the Confederate forces were defeated in April 1865, the seceding states rejoined the United States.

Cross-references

U.S. Civil War.

References in periodicals archive ?
The judge didn't accept the secession plan Gardendale had proposed, but--having been persuaded that some of the local parents did have legitimate reasons for wanting to create their own school district--she decided that secession could proceed on a more limited basis.
On the @rebeltexas Instagram, according to the New Knowledge report, the IRA manipulated political events such as Brexit to promote armed insurrection and Texas secession, which has a long history in the Lone Star State.
Speaking to ANI, Swamy said, "It's a de-facto way of dividing the country and creating secession. There is only one court and one law.
This development should not be surprising as religious as well deep cultural reasons underlie the call for secession; these reasons can hardly be resolved overnight, nor addressed by legal approaches and constitutional adjustments alone.
SOVIET UNIONA closer look at history the outcome and obtaining conditions in other African countries that have experienced secession can inform us what could await Kenya in the event of State disintegration, especially the human cost and the deterioration of problems that triggered secession.
Kilifi North MP Owen Baya said his secession motion will be tabled in Parliament once the August House resumes sittings.
The remarks received many interpretations, with government critics and opposition supporters calling for President Kiir's resignation from the power if the secession was not his choice.
(2) This latter distinction, unfortunately, has been largely ignored by historians, who most often describe secession as an act caused by political and economic factors while ignoring-or diminishing-the moral and theological rationale of the southern states and their leaders.
This historical study of a collection of primary source materials analyzes the rhetoric used by Southern secession commissionersAE speeches and public letters written to justify secession, racial segregation, racism, and white supremacy, and the impact of these messages the secession commissioners carried across the South in late 1860 and early 1861.
A rally of support for a so-called Calexit swelled after Republican Donald Trump was elected president in November, but the secession movement could have a far road ahead of it despite the state's robust economy and large population. If the ballot measure attracts enough signatures to put the issue to a vote in November 2018, a special election on independence would be held in March 2019.
THE MISSISSIPPI SECESSION CONVENTION, WHICH MET IN JACKSON IN January and March 1861, laid out the causes for which they had chosen to secede from the Union by stating, "Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery--the greatest material interest in the world" (229).
Secession has been talked about in many states for two centuries, but only got serious in 1861 when 11 slave states seceded after the election of Abraham Lincoln.