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which can be rewritten as the estimate of the selection coefficient s for each generation:
Several traits exhibited selection coefficients that did not differ between sites or populations, but were significantly different from zero.
These values are classified as moderate to high effects (Cohen 1988), and they are qualitatively consistent with the selection coefficients calculated for young and mature demes (Table 4).
In particular, I will show later that two different kinds of kin selection coefficients have been confused because of a failure to separate between the effects of selection and the fidelity of transmission.
(in press), total fitness is a power function of the individual selection coefficients, but that changes the selection effects of even single mutations.
Selection Coefficients. - The covariance of a character with relative fitness is mathematically equivalent to the within generation change in the mean of the character due to directional selection, that is, the directional selection differential (Lande and Arnold 1983; Arnold and Wade 1984; Falconer 1989).
- The predicted response to bumblebee-mediated selection on corolla flare was calculated as R = [h.sup.2]S using upper and lower bounds of the confidence interval for [h.sup.2] and the selection coefficient S, based on the number of a plant's progeny surviving to age 6 (Falconer 1981).
Table 1 shows the relationship between the mean extinction time, mutation rate, and selection coefficient. The mean time to extinction declines nearly exponentially with increasing genomic mutation rate when s is small and much more rapidly with high s.
Replacing h with the more familiar selection coefficient, s = 1 -[1/(1-h)], snakes with regular patterns have fitness 1 - s, snakes with reduced patterns have fitness 1, and 0 < s < 1.
An extension of CJS models has been developed that allows estimation of selection coefficients on quantitative traits (Hoffman 1993; Kingsolver and Smith 1995).
Observed evolutionary responses were compared with those predicted from estimates of standardized selection coefficients, heritabilities, and genetic correlations (Lande 1979).