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Other key capacities described were the ability to understand seasonal trends, establishment of subnational diagnostic laboratories, and creation of systems for information sharing between laboratories and sentinel surveillance sites.
The sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses began with a sentinel unit in 2000 and expanded gradually to reach 60 units in 2010, reaching at least one unit in 26 of the 27 states, and all the five Brazilian regions (Fig.
Apart from some limited epidemiological studies, a formalized annual HIV sentinel surveillance system (since 1998) has been put in place by NACO in India to measure the HIV prevalence & incidence.
Strategies which rely on key informants who prospectively document all births and deaths in their communities, have been found to be effective in rural, resource-poor settings, and represent a promising technique where surveys and more costly sentinel surveillance techniques are not feasible or sustainable.
Ever since its introduction in 1998 in India (2), annual HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) has remained the mainstay for monitoring trends of HIV epidemic in high and low risk populations and also for HIV disease burden estimation in India.
1) Nearly one-quarter of Los Angeles women who were screened for HPV as part of a sentinel surveillance project in 2004-2005 tested positive for at least one high-risk type of the virus.
The Zimbabwe Demographic Health Surveys (ZDHS) and Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment (ZimVAC), as well as the Food and Nutrition Surveillance (FNS) and the IDD Sentinel surveillance are important sources of nutrition information for decision makers.
23%, a rate close to the 1% anticipated from the recent antenatal sentinel surveillance.
A routine universal vaccination of 11- to 12-year-old females is under consideration," said Cristen Suhr, project coordinator of the HPV sentinel surveillance project sponsored by the CDC.
Post-mortem medical examiner samples may be useful for sentinel surveillance of disorders usually detected by antibody determinations on specimens from ill patients or from surveys.
In the same period sentinel surveillance reported the first HIV-positive cases among sex workers--3 were HIV-positive out of 52,870 tested.