Sierra Club

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Sierra Club

The Sierra Club is a nonprofit, member-supported public interest organization that promotes conservation of the natural environment by influencing public policy decisions. In addition, the Sierra Club organizes participation in wilderness activities for its members, including mountain climbing, backpacking, and camping. It is the oldest and largest nonprofit, grassroots environmental organization in the world, with more than 700,000 members. In mid-2003, the Sierra Club consisted of the national organization, located in San Francisco, California, 65 chapters, and approximately 365 local groups.

The organization was founded on June 4, 1892, by a group of 162 California residents. The Sierra Club's first president was John Muir, a pioneer in the promotion of national parks and the protection of the environment. Muir involved the club in political action, leading a successful fight to preserve Yosemite as a national park. Muir and the club also lobbied for the creation of national parks at the Grand Canyon and Mt. Rainier in the late nineteenth century. The Sierra Club drew national attention during the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt, when Muir got the president interested in creating more national parks.

The Sierra Club did not seek members out-side of California until 1950, when membership stood at 10,000. Membership has increased dramatically since that time, due in large part to the club's intense interest in protecting the environment. Since 1970 the club has played a major role in gaining legislative support for many federal environmental protection measures, including the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the passage of the Endangered Species Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the National Forest Management Act, and the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The Sierra Club has also campaigned for similar state legislation.

During the 1990s, the Sierra Club filed lawsuits seeking to require the federal government to enforce provisions of the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Air Act. The organization also protested global trade that did not include adequate environmental protection controls. In the early 2000s the Sierra Club also advocated for the cleanup of toxic wastes, resolving the problems of solid waste disposal, promoting sustainable population and family planning, and fighting to reverse ozone depletion and global warming. In 2003 the Sierra Club highlighted the evasion of state and local Pollution controls by many of the nation's "animal factories," sprawling establishments where thousands of animals are produced and housed in strict confinement before being transported to slaughterhouses.

Further readings

Burton, Lloyd. 2002. Worship and Wilderness: Culture, Religion, and Law in Public Lands Management. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

Clifton, Carr. 1990. Wild by Law: The Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund and the Places It Has Saved. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Ehrlich, Gretel. 2000. John Muir: Nature's Visionary. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic.

Sierra Club. Available online at <> (accessed August 11, 2003).


Environmental Law; Environmental Protection Agency.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Sierra Club filed the lawsuit to have a judge require the EPA to issue a plan for Arkansas.
Working with more than 100 partner organizations nationwide, the Sierra Club is on schedule to meet its original goals and the new funding will both accelerate and expand this success.
And Andrews County has joined the battle, suing the Sierra Club in a bid to end its legal claims.
The Sierra Club has deep pockets funded by liberal foundations and knows how to work the media and politicians.
Sierra Club executive director Carl Pope, whose grandfather belonged to the 1930s generation of hunter-conservationists (he fought for state parks in Michigan), remembers when he first recognized these attacks as part of a coordinated smear campaign against greens.
The Sierra Club also has a Sunday morning conditioning hike that begins at Stough Canyon.
The Sierra Club and automakers will be giving presentations and offering test drives exclusively to the press on Friday, September 9, with test drives available to the public on Saturday and Sunday.
According to the strictest of scenarios drawn up in the YEC's April draft proposal, issue-oriented advocacy groups such as the Sierra Club and the National Rifle Association could suddenly find themselves regulated by the same rules that govern "express advocacy" groups such as STOPHillaryPAC or the Committee for a Democratic Majority.
While Grimaldi maintained that fuel efficiency technology could raise prices of trucks by $5,000, Sierra Club said the GM official "must be referring to the 1999 cost premium for a hybrid vehicle.
The recent settlement between EPA and the Sierra Club agreed to reduce the deadline extension in the final rule by one year to May 15, 2003.
According to Grainne Ferrigan, manager of Sierra Club's licensing program, a broad range of people, beyond the audiences traditionally reached by the Sierra Club will now have the opportunity to support "green products" through their "daily grind.
Within days of Ford's appointment, Daniel Becker, global warming expert at the Sierra Club, issued a challenge to the "enlightened executive" to do more.