Although it is known that soft ticks
are the only vector for TBRF, no soft ticks
were found or trapped.
On August 12 and 28, the public health team inspected the cabin and found evidence of rodents and soft tick
infestation, including rodent nesting material in a woodpile in a crawl space beneath the cabin, squirrel droppings in a chimney crevasse, and one live and one desiccated Ornithodoros hermsii tick.
epidemic relapsing fever) or by soft ticks
11 Ticks are classified into three families: (1) the Ixodidae, or hard ticks; (2) the Argasidae, or soft ticks
; and (3) the Nuttalliellidae, a much lesser known family, with characteristics of both hard and soft ticks
are leathery and nonscutate (no shield), without sexual dimorphism (Figure 1B).
It has been found in various other hard ticks, including species of Amblyomma, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, and in soft ticks
, including species of Argas and Ornithodoros (4-12).
Ticks that transmit disease to animals and humans can be divided into two groups: the hard ticks (Ixodidae) (Figure 4-1) and the soft ticks
are covered by a leathery, highly folded skin, granulated in appearance.
Both hard and soft ticks
are potential disease carriers, but hard ticks are the main vectors in transmitting tick-borne diseases to man.
Hard ticks have one nymphal stage, whereas soft ticks
may have more.
But it's a leap of faith at this point to extrapolate from soft ticks
to the deer [Lyme disease] tick," cautions Richard Endris of Merck Sharp & Dohme in Rahway, N.
These soft ticks
typically live in the nests of rodents such as ground squirrels, tree squirrels, and chipmunks in coniferous forests at elevations between 1,500 and 8,000 feet (457 and 2,438 meters) (5).