joint effect

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Related to Spurious relationship: additive relationship
See: synergy
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These census data strongly indicate that the spurious relationship argument did not hold in the case of the seven Louisiana congressional districts.
At worst, the data were the product of a spurious relationship.
As explained below, we believe that substantial misclassification is unlikely; even if misclassification did occur, it would most likely be nondifferential with regard to exposure, which would be expected to bias associations toward the null rather than create spurious relationships.