Average

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AVERAGE. A term used in commerce to signify a contribution made by the owners of the ship, freight and goods, on board, in proportion to their respective interests, towards any particular loss or expense sustained for the general safety of the ship and cargo; to the end that the particular loser may not be a greater sufferer than the owner of the ship and the other owners of goods on board. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7; Code de Com. art. 397; 2 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 407; Poth. Aver. art. Prel.
     2. Average is called general or gross average, because it falls generally upon the whole or gross amount of the ship, freight and cargo; and also to distinguish it from what is often though improperly termed particular average, but which in truth means a particular or partial, and not a general loss; or has no affinity to average properly so called. Besides these there are other small charges, called petty or accustomed averages; such as pilotage, towage, light-money, beaconage, anchorage, bridge toll, quarantine, river charges, signals, instructions, castle money, pier money, digging the ship out of the ice, and the like.
     3. A contribution upon general average can only be claimed in cases where, upon as much deliberate on and consultation between the captain and his officers as the occasion will admit of, it appears that the sacrifice at the time it was made, was absolutely and indispensably necessary for the preservation of the ship and cargo. To entitle the owner of the goods to an average contribution, the loss must evidently conduce to the preservation of the ship and the rest of the cargo; and it must appear that the ship and the rest of the cargo were in fact saved. Show. Ca. Parl. 20. See generally Code de Com. tit. 11 and 12; Park, Ins. c. 6; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7 4 Mass. 548; 6 Mass. 125; 8 Mass. 467; 1 Caines' R. 196; 4 Dall. 459; 2 Binn. 547 4 Binn. 513; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 237, in note; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 229 3 Johns. Cas. 178; 1 Caines' R. 43; 2 Caines' R. 263; Id. 274; 8 Johns. R. 237, 2d edit 9 Johns. R. 9; 11 Johns. R 315 1 Caines' R. 573; 7 Johns R. 412; Wesk. Ins. tit. Average; 2 Barn. & Crest. 811 1 Rob. Adlm. Rep. 293; 2 New Rep. 378 18 Ves. 187; Lex. Mer. Armer. ch. 9; Bac Abr. Merchant, F; Vin. Abr. Contribution and' Average; Stev. on Av.; Ben. on Av.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
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Analogously, the effect of uncertainties on the identified unknown excitation can be decreased by using the statistical average of multisets of identified input time histories, that is,
In practical specifications, a statistical average is taken for the EVM.
Even the slight decline in the statistical average hourly rate may be misleading, because the vast majority of respondents--82%--reported no change in their rates at the end of last year.
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Other assertions about these countries, we discovered, are true only as a statistical average, not for the regional or national case, and often not for individual businesses.
Eight hours is the statistical average of the number of hours needed (Walters, 19).
Under conditions adverse to free state effect expansion, the statistical distribution of the free state and the statistical average (kinematic state) are reduced to values obeying the probabilistic predictions of quantum mathematics.
Gamboa, the author, recognizes that a worklife expectancy is a statistical average. He further notes that "the tables are effective to the degree that the person using them understands how a particular subject may vary from the averages presented in the tables." (p.
For each principle, I summed the values indicated and divided by the total number of responses to that principle to obtain the statistical average for relevance and for intentional usage.
This means that the statistical average per capita consumption has declined sharply, from 252 gm.
RPI, which stands for Rainfall Probability Index, works from a statistical average of daily rainfall predictions for the forthcoming 36 hours - predictions for that day, that night, and the next day.

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