The avian stifle joint incorporates the proximal tibiotarsus, fibular head, and medial and lateral condyles of the femur.
Muscles and ligaments involved in flexion and extension of the stifle joint may contract after luxation; these include flexor (flexor crurus medialis and gastrocnemius) and extensor muscles (iliotibialis cranialis, iliotibialis lateralis, femorotibialis internus, femorotibialis externus and medius, and iliofibularis).
Management of experimental stifle joint luxation with combination of collateral ligament prosthesis and hinged linear external skeletal fixator (HLESF) in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica).
Progressive soft tissue swelling is evident around the right stifle joint, with multiple, variably sized small gas opacities within the region of soft tissue swelling.
Proximal tibial osteotomy for the repair of cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joints
The range of motion in the stifle joint was decreased, and the parrot was able to bear weight and grasp normally.
1-5) Herein, we describe the stabilization of stifle joint luxation with an extracapsular stabilization with lateral nonabsorbable sutures.
The tibial and fibular nerves are branches of the ischiatic nerve and course along the lateral aspect of the stifle joint and proximal portion of the tibiotarsus and fibula.
8-10) The bones of avian stifle joints include the femoral condyles, the proximal tibiotarsus, and the fibular head.
The dog was placed in dorsal recumbency, slightly rotated to one side to allow a medial approach to the proximal half of the tibia and stifle joint.
Effect of tibial plateau leveling on stability of the canine cranial cruciate deficient stifle joint.
It is necessary to maintain a joint extension angle of 140[degrees] during radiographs, because the placement of the stifle joint
in slight flexion probably will result in underestimation of the patellar tendon angle (GUERRERO, 2003) and therefore, application of a space cage shorter than the ideal.