forest

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forest

an area of woodland, historically, one owned by the sovereign and set apart as a hunting ground with its own laws and officers.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006
References in periodicals archive ?
Specimen examined: One male adult collected in the dry season (MUSM 44456), captured at the subcanopy level near to a small stream (Fig.
Staebler et al., "Amazon rain forest subcanopy flow and the carbon budget: Santaraem LBAECO site," Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, vol.
Inventorying and estimating subcanopy spider diversity using semiquantitative sampling methods in an Afromontane Forest.
This variability may be due to regional climate patterns (IPCC, 2013), response potential of tree species (Trant and Hermanutz, 2014), low seed viability (Wilmking et al., 2012; Jameson et al., 2015), herbivory (Olofsson et al., 2009), local geomorphology and topography (Macias-Fauria and Johnson, 2013), disturbance regime (Brown and Johnstone, 2012), or the influence of seedbed and subcanopy species diversity (Wheeler et al., 2011; Cranston and Hermanutz, 2013).
The subcanopy includes Melisa azedarach, Litsea glutinosa, Albizzia lebbeck, and Celtis sinensis, with lesser numbers of Pinus massoniana, Cinnamomum camphora, Sapium sebiferum, Vitex negundo, and Dodoneae viscose.
Properly implemented, they can also improve forest habitat for species of plants and animals, and restore ecological processes and services (e.g., hydrologic function, soil nutrient cycling, subcanopy light availability, biodiversity, aesthetics) (McIver et al.
In contrast, other studies showed that, despite numerous drought events, basal area and density of fast-growing, canopy and emergent trees increased over the last two decades, whereas some slow-growing, subcanopy or understory trees declined in numerous terra firme forests (Laurance et al, 2004).
DISCUSSION--At both study areas, black-chinned hummingbirds nested primarily in the subcanopy forest layer, about 4 m from the ground, but we found striking differences in patterns of nest plants used.
Over time, this woodland encroachment creates a more heterogeneous distribution of soil resources [2] because juniper trees move resources from interspaces between trees to subcanopy tree mounds through litter-fall (fallen foliage, twigs, and berries) and decomposition of fine roots [3, 4].
However, the authors noted that remotely sensed data focusing on the canopy surface (i.e., surface reflection measured by Hyperion) might be inappropriate for assessing relationships between subcanopy elements, such as understory species richness.
tress: large woody perennials, top canopy, or subcanopy layer in forest (>4 m height);