In a scenario where actors from divergent political set-ups are socialised under a regime of inter-governmentality rather than supranationality
, this has been a very selective process with little scope for the evolution or enforcement of supranational norms.
(30) Although proposed as the most effective model for regionalization, neofunctionalism is not without its criticism, its critics contend that the theory placed an undue emphasis on supranationality
and failed to recognize the autonomy of the political sector and "the interaction between the international environment and the integrating region." (31)
In addition the politicians were uncertain because of the negative attitude of their Transport Ministries on the question of supranationality
. However, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs kept the discussion within their own responsibility as long as supranationality
was the major controversial issue.
The EC wanted to create a "citizens' Europe" and give Europeans a sense of supranationality
, the basic idea that "together we are strong."'12 As Shore notes, they had to promote the idea of a single Europe, but to do this requires altering people's consciousness.
This point was made by Ernest Mandel, "International Capitalism and Supranationality
," in Ralph Miliband and John Saville, eds., Socialist Register 1967 (London: Merlin, 1967).
(209.) "Accountability vis-a-vis the national parliaments would not, in my view, be consistent within the euro's supranationality
." Hans Tietmeyer, Financial and Monetary Integration: Benefits, Opportunities and Pitfalls, 1998 Mais Lecture, delivered at the City University Business School in London (May 18, 1998) (transcript available at the office of the Houston Journal of International Law).
As a result, many scholars sharing the neofunctionalist and pluralist bias against the state have gravitated to sectoral policy studies, where they are able to generate more convincing evidence of the emergence of a multilevel European polity, with the diffusion of state power upward to the EU level and downward to the regions, as well as of the important role of supranationality
and a variety of nongovernmental and transnational groups.
institutions can achieve a political reality that is different from traditional supranationality
and therefore be able to avoid direct confrontation over sovereignty.
The latter explicitly accepted a degree of "supranationality
" as a constitutive element of European integration.
is one of the touchstones of the European Union, the concept of power being wielded for certain purposes by a body above and apart from the constituent parts.