Pope Pius IX's 1864 encyclical Quanta Cura, which included the promulgation of the Syllabus of Errors
, began as a reply to a speech by Charles de Montalembert calling for the reconciliation of the church with democracy.
In 1864, Pope Pius IX issued his "Syllabus of Errors
," which condemned religious liberty, the separation of church and state, along with "errors having reference to modern liberalism."
In the end, Bokenkotter's argument that the Catholic Church has emerged as a powerful progressive force in world affairs remains largely unsubstantiated because there is inadequate discussion of specifically how, or even whether, the Church as an institution has changed since the publication of the Syllabus of Errors
. Though Bokenkotter talks about the "gradual awakening of the Catholic social conscience," he does not satisfactorily establish a connection between the Church and the individual Catholics whose lives he chronicles.
His idea of tradition, based on the medieval concept, implicitly paralleled the American concept of democracy, Pope Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors
(1864) notwithstanding; common people note the ways of the Creator in creations.
Other proposals called for a variety of works from a compendium of theology to an updated syllabus of errors
, from a resource for bishops to a study text for children.
It was the likes of Voltaire who produced the Declaration of the Rights of Man while Roman pontiffs were penning the likes of the "Syllabus of Errors
," which condemned precisely such devotion to freedom of conscience that the declaration espoused.
Not since Pope Plus IX's Syllabus of Errors
have so many Catholics been excoriated with such an avalanche of acrimony.
During his extended papacy, the First Vatican Council was held, the dogma of the Immaculate Conception was defined, the syllabus of errors
was promulgated and the Papal States were lost.
Many Catholics and other interested pope-watchers were astounded and disappointed at this odd coupling: of the engaging and optimistic pope who opened Vatican II with the 19th-century prelate who instituted the infamous Syllabus of Errors
, pushed papal infallibility on the church, and declared war on modern culture, politics, and thought.
It was more than twice the combined volume of all texts issued by previous councils, and it repeated the anathemas of Trent and Vatican I, as well as the wholesale denunciation of the contemporary world already found in Plus IX's "Syllabus of Errors
Pope Pius IX made the point in no uncertain terms in 1846 in his encyclical Quanta cura and the accompanying Syllabus of Errors
: "The state must recognize [the Catholic Church] as supreme and submit to its influence....