From the Talmud Bavli
we can also infer a practical technique for the self-developed Jewish scholar that applies to the 21st century as well.
It is now generally accepted that the Talmud Bavli (also known as the Babylonian Talmud) was not considered to be a closed work until the sixth to seventh centuries, or perhaps early in the eighth.
(16.) I have consulted, but not always followed, the following translations: for Mishnah, Danby 1938; Tosefta: Neusner 1981; Talmud Yerushalmi and Talmud Bavli: Neusner 1982: Mishcon and Epstein 1935.
(23.) Their influential work, known as the Tosafot, is given pride of place alongside Rashi's commentary in printed editions of the Talmud Bavli. These "additions" (in Hebrew: Tosafot) to Rashi date from the twelfth-fourteenth-centuries, primarily to Germany and northern France.
(12.) See Isaiah 45:18; MISHNAH EDUWOT 1:13; TALMUD BAVLI YEVAMOT 62a; FELDMAN, supra note 9, at 48; NISHMAT AVRAHAM, EVEN HAEZER 1:9 (citing R.
(28.) RASHI, TALMUD BAVLI SHABBAT 151, sub voce ushmuel amar; TOSAFOT, TALMUD BAVLI KETUBOT 6b, verse roy beki'in; TALMUD BAVLI NIDDAH 64b, sub voce sha'ani Shmuel; see also R.
Perez's ruling is cited in BAYIT HADASH, YOREH DEAH 195; SHILTEI HAGIBORIM, TALMUD BAVLI SHEVUOT ch.
(38.) TALMUD BAVLI YEVAMOT 45b; MAIMONIDES, HILKHOT ISSUREI BIAH 15:3; TUR, EVEN HAEZER 16; SHULHAN ARUKH, EVEN HAEZER 4:1.
TALMUD BAVLI SHABBOS 156b (explaining the commandment to wear a yarmulke); see also RABBI YOSEF KARO, SHULCHAN ARUCH ORACH CHAYIM 2:6.
(40.) See TALMUD BAVLI BABA BASRA 8a; MAIMONIDIES, MISHNA TORAH HILCHOT MATNAS ANIYIM 8:10.
(60.) See, e.g., TALMUD BAVLI YOMA, 83a (ruling that you may violate the Sabbath to save a life); see also Pearce, supra note 3, at 1779.
See also TALMUD BAVLI SANHEDRIN 32b (holding that the verse is a directive to judges to ask many questions of a litigant whom they know to be a liar); TALMUD YERUSHALMI SANHEDRIN 5:2 (holding that the verse is a commandment to judges to try to find mitigating factors where the defendant is accused of a capital crime).