stoicism

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It is important to understand the reason why the Stoics make such a sharp distinction.
The Stoics and the State leads readers on a journey through not merely the Stoics' political thought, but through many of the interconnected paths of their philosophy, including their concept of human sociability; their understanding of nature, law, and justice; their anthropology, cosmology, and theology; and the actual political practice of particular Stoics.
Philosophers from the US and Europe discuss blending as the Stoic explanation for the constitution and causation of bodies; the failure to distinguish divine and human eros in PlatoAEs Phaedrus; perception in PlatoAEs tripartite soul in the Republic, recognizing autonomy in the non-rational parts; the Stoics and the issue of peculiar qualities and their relation to the identity of a particular individual; and an alternative reading of PlatoAEs politics that pairs his philosophical theory and historical events (the trial of Socrates and PlatoAEs failed intervention in Sicilian politics), the Republic as reconstruction of SocratesAE defense in the Apology, and the Laws as a reconstruction of PlatoAEs idea of political reform in the Seventh Letter.
As we know, the Stoics considered the cosmos a living organism, and they theorised both about the human soul's Hegemonikon and about its counterpart in the World-soul.
Virtue ethics includes a family of theories with a rich and complex history, including ancient perspectives from the likes of Aristotle and the Stoics, as well as medieval perspectives such as that of Thomas Aquinas.
The Stoics were philosophers dedicated to the study of self-mastery, not self-abnegation.
The Stoics did not seek death, but equipped with a coherent philosophy, nor did they dread it.
The Stoics thought that once human beings become rational, (1) they immediately form false beliefs about what is good and what is bad.
On the one hand, both ancient sources and contemporary authors appear to indicate that the disjunction was essentially exclusive for the Stoics. However, on the other hand, some ancient sources also state that the Stoics took disjunctions with more than two disjuncts into account and claimed that such disjunctions were true, as those with only two disjuncts, when only one of the disjuncts was true.
This is important to the Stoic because the right kind of character insures that the agent will have all of the virtues: "The Stoics in general adhered to the principle that the Virtues are indissolubly connected as expressions of one and the same character, so that the presence of one virtue implies the presence of all" (Copleston 397).
Due to the consistent and continuous interest of the Stoics in the values of innermost personhood, it is thus appropriate to correlate the thematic choice of civil war with the issue of inward warfare--both at the level of the individual and the collective psyche.
Annas discusses the Stoic ethics in her book in three separate loci from three separate points of view, in chapters entitled "The Stoics: Human Nature and the Point of View of the Universe", "The Stoics on Other-Concern and Impartiality", "The Stoics: Natural Law and the Depoliticized Outlook" (see Annas 1993: 159-179, 262-275, 302-311).