Todd, Thomas

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Todd, Thomas

Thomas Todd served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1807 to 1826. Trained as a land surveyor and as a lawyer, Todd's handful of opinions on the Court mostly concerned land claims.

Todd was born in King and Queen County, Virginia, on January 23, 1765. As a teenager, he served briefly in the Revolutionary War before attending Liberty Hall, now called Washington and Lee University. Todd studied surveying before moving to Kentucky (which was then part of Virginia) in 1784, after his first cousin, Harry Innes, was appointed to the Kentucky district of the Virginia Supreme Court. Todd was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1788, but he gained positions of influence by becoming a recorder.

Todd was the clerk for the ten conventions called between 1784 and 1792 to arrange Kentucky's separation from Virginia. He served as clerk to the federal district court in Kentucky (1789–1792), clerk of the Kentucky House of Representatives (1792), and clerk of the Kentucky Court of Appeals (1792–1799). When the Kentucky Supreme Court was created in 1799, Todd was named as its first chief clerk. Two years later, he was named as a judge on that court.

Todd proved adept at resolving the land disputes created by the complicated law that Kentucky had inherited from Virginia. In 1806, he was named chief judge of the Kentucky Supreme Court but served only briefly in that position.

In 1807, the U.S. Supreme Court was expanded to seven members. The western states (i.e., Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio) urged President Thomas Jefferson to nominate Todd to the new seat, as the new justice would be responsible for presiding as a judge in the newly established Seventh Circuit. Jefferson agreed and nominated Todd in early 1807. Todd took his seat in 1808.

During his time on the Court, Todd served under Chief Justice John Marshall. Although they had different political beliefs, Todd adopted Marshall's views on constitutional construction. Todd's knowledge of land laws made him a valuable member of the Court, even though he wrote very few opinions. His absence from the Court for six terms because of illness, family matters, and the difficulty of traveling to Washington also diminished his effectiveness. Todd died on February 7, 1826, in Frankfort, Kentucky.

Further readings

Cushman, Clare, ed. 1995. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies 1789–1995. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

Lewis, Thomas T., and Richard L. Wilson, eds. 2001. Encyclopedia of the U.S. Supreme Court. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press.

References in periodicals archive ?
Kersten - Thomas Todd Kersten, 68, of Eugene, died July 17.
Winners were Thomas Todd of Auckland, for his article on plume extraction; Bronwyn Scully of Waikato, for her presentation on advancements in technology to treat and examine the oesophagus, stomach and small bowel; and Debbie Levet from Waikato Hospital, who presented a paper on a multidisciplinary team facilitating colonoscopy procedures on 187 patients.
Paul Richard Berg, Vero Beach William Howard Cantwell II, Melbourne Wiley Braxton Gillam IV, Jacksonville Scott Gardner Hawkins, West Palm Beach Thomas Todd Pittenger, Orlando Lee Harris Schillinger, Hollywood
FOLLOWING our article of January 11, 2004, Glasgow Private Hire have asked us to make clear that Thomas Todd, who we exposed as dealing in drugs from a taxi, had not worked for the company since June 2003.
This was occupied by Thomas Todd, a merchant whose company was called Todd,Jackson & Co.
Cirulli of Bergenfield, Fred Crane of Cape Coral, Florida, Anthony Defrino of Lyndhurst, Lewis Ronay of River Edge, Robert Solleder of Cresskill, Thomas Todd of East Hartford, Connecticut and Francis E.
Speaking on the 'State of the Union of Race Relations" at the NBC-LEO Annual Luncheon, Chicago Attorney Thomas Todd captivated the audience with an electrifying delivery.
Outstanding among the males who have successfully battled the bulge is Thomas Todd, a well-known Chicago attorney and former acting national president of Operation PUSH.
Laura Mongan's THOMAS TODD (2:50) can stay on the upgrade in the novice chase.
Today's picture shows lifeguards James Elwood (left) and Thomas Todd of the Inshore Rescue boat at Roker with two-way megaphones for picking up cries from swimmers in trouble...but in what year?
Thomas Todd and Reece Hindley (2) were on target against Blyth Rangers Valencia, who replied through Connor Shields.
Thomas Todd, of Woodstock Road, East Belfast, faces a charge of sexual assault on a child over the incident on December 14.