Ixodidae tick infestation
in humans in Maranhao state, Brazil.
Like elsewhere in the world, chemical acaricides have been the mainstay of tick control in this region; however, increasing resistance to this group of insecticides threatens livestock production systems, especially small-holding sectors that rely on rearing of exotic cattle breeds that are more susceptible to tick infestation
and tick-borne diseases [TBDs] .
Distribution of various Ixodid tick species and risk factors associated with tick infestation
and burden levels were studied in bovine from three distinct temporal zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Certainly a portion of neonatal mortality could be attributed to the compromised condition of calves as a consequence of marginalized adult cows, given the clear association of frequent, high winter tick infestations
and the declining condition and productivity in this population.
- Economic losses are lower per animal on large farms, except in the case of tick infestations
In Merida, Nicaragua, the potential for infection of horses by tickborne pathogens is a concern because of the horses' often poor body condition and heavy tick infestations
. In 2013, to determine exposure of equids to >1 tickborne organism, visiting veterinary students collected blood samples from horses.
In humans, tick infestations
typically involve few specimens and the greatest risk for people bitten by a tick lies in infection due to a tick-borne pathogen (2).
The farmers commonly used acaricides and ethno-veterinary medicines to prevent tick infestations
. Generally, the farmers had knowledge on cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick infestation
According to the WHO's public health advice, in order to reduce the risk of tick-to-human transmission, people should wear protective clothing (long sleeves, long trousers); wear light coloured clothing to allow easy detection of ticks on the clothes; use approved acaricides (chemicals intended to kill ticks) on clothing; use approved repellent on the skin and clothing; regularly examine clothing and skin for ticks; if found, remove them safely; seek to eliminate or control tick infestations
on animals or in stables and barns; and avoid areas where ticks are abundant and seasons when they are most active.
A side issue, yet to be verified, is an increase in tick infestations
as sheep lose immunity, with some experts also casting doubt on the value of prophylactic treatments.
Currently, it is used in form of collars to prevent tick infestations
, as lotions to treat demodicosis, and as spot-on solutions in combination with other drugs (metaflumizone or fipronil) to treat and prevent flea and tick infestations
(Prullage et al., 2011).