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Related to Torrefaction: gasification
See: deflagrate
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Thermal pretreatment of wood (Lauan) block by torrefaction and its influence on the properties of the biomass.
Ranjan, "Torrefaction of woody biomass (Juniper and Mesquite) using inert and non-inert gases," Fuel, vol.
The presence of calcium along the edges of the torrefied sawdust particle suggests that calcium might have reacted with the carbon surface or the volatiles given off during the higher temperature torrefaction. Some mineral phases (high in Ca and Si/Al/O complex) were found in the pores of the torrefied sawdust, suggesting both incorporation and then reaction with the carbon surface.
During torrefaction, woodchips go through a machine - almost like an industrial-sized oven - to remove the moisture and toast the biomass.
Another interesting option, especially for herbaceous biomass (currently rarely considered for co-firing) might be a pre-treatment process combining torrefaction and pelletization to allow co-utilization of high ratios of low-quality biomass with coal in existing coal systems without major modifications.
Preprocessing technologies being advanced include pelletization, torrefaction, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, etc.
Pretreatment might include chipping, pelletization, torrefaction (a drying process) and pyrolysis.
Some of the key companies in the cold brew coffee market include Califia Farms, JAB Holding Company, HighBrewCoffee, Kohana Coffee, Nestle, La Colombe Torrefaction, Starbucks, RISE Brewing Co., Sleepy Owl, and Heartland Food Products Group
Also solid bio-char will be produced via torrefaction to reintroduce in the fields and restore the natural soil composition and texture with the help of the Flemish partner.
Blasiak, "Co-firing based on biomass torrefaction in a pulverized coal boiler with aim of 100% fuel switching," Applied Energy, vol.
Torrefaction, a method to improve wood-pellet properties, was assessed by Mobini et al.