The sending of an annual tribute payment
and military aid by the vassal king was one aspect of this socio-political exchange, completed in return by the help and assistance of the more powerful king.
He shows how Russian settlement generated warfare, Yasak tribute payment
of furs, and exploitation to such an extent that many by the nineteenth century doubted the capacity of the Siberian people to survive.
The Chinese forced frontier rulers to join this system with the threat of military invasion, and extracted resources from the native officials by way of tribute payments
. In their efforts to consolidate their expansions, the Chinese made efforts to weaken the power and authority of the native officials by various means.
Twinam shows how some avoided tribute payments
, others served in royal militias, a few were able to bypass prohibitions to enter universities, and many, guided by a "Hispanic propensity to think generationally" (126), played "genealogical mathematics" by calculatingly marrying lighter-skinned partners in hope of whitening future generations.