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A state in which a person's normal capacity to act or reason is inhibited by alcohol or drugs.

Generally, an intoxicated person is incapable of acting as an ordinary prudent and cautious person would act under similar conditions. In recognition of this factor, the law may allow intoxication to be used as a defense to certain crimes. In many jurisdictions, intoxication is a defense to specific-intent crimes. The underlying rationale is that the intoxicated individual cannot possess the requisite mental state necessary to establish the offense.

Other jurisdictions recognize it as a defense to general-intent crimes as well. For example, although rape is commonly considered a general-intent crime, there are states in which extreme intoxication may be alleged as a defense. It is unlikely, however, that the defense will be successful in such cases absent proof that the defendant was so intoxicated that he or she could not form the intent to have intercourse.

In Homicide cases, intoxication is relevant to negate premeditation and deliberation necessary for first-degree murder. When the defense is successfully interposed, it will reduce a charge of first-degree murder to second-degree murder.

When a person is forced to consume an intoxicant against his or her will, the person is involuntarily intoxicated. In most jurisdictions, the defense of involuntary intoxication is treated similarly to the Insanity Defense. For example, an intoxicated person who cannot distinguish right from wrong at the time of committing the wrongful act would have a valid defense.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


n. 1) the condition of being drunk as the result of drinking alcoholic beverages and/or use of narcotics. In the eyes of the law this definition may differ depending on the situation to which it is applied. 2) In drunk driving (DUI, DWI) the standard of intoxication varies by state between .08 and .10 alcohol in the bloodstream, or a combination of alcohol and narcotics which would produce the same effect even though the amount of alcohol is below the minimum. 3) In public drunkenness the standard is subjective, meaning the person must be unable to care for himself, be dangerous to himself or others, be causing a disturbance, or refuse to leave or move along when requested. 4) Intoxication as a defense in a criminal case in which the claim is made by the defendant that he/she was too intoxicated to form an intent to commit the crime or to know what he/she was doing, the amount of intoxication is subjective but higher than for drunk driving. There is also the question if the intoxication was an intentional aforethought to the crime ("I wanted to get drunk so I had the nerve to kill her.") Thus, unintentional intoxication can show lack of capacity to form an intent and thus reduce the possible level of conviction and punishment, as from voluntary (intentional) manslaughter down to involuntary (unintentional but through a wrongful act) manslaughter. However, in vehicular manslaughter, the intoxication is an element in the crime, whether getting drunk was intentional or not, since criminal intent was not a factor. (See: vehicular manslaughter)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
If you overdo it, drinking as much as I did over such a short period of time, the kidneys just can't cope and the water disperses through the blood and other organs, resulting in water intoxication.
Symptoms of water intoxication include headaches, confusion, or drowsiness, but if the pressure increases patients may suffer brain damage, fall into a coma, and in extreme cases even die.
"Water intoxication is where you consume too much water in a short period of time and your blood level of sodium drops...making a tragic situation," she tells Buzzfeed.
Kronlund, "Fatal child abuse by forced water intoxication," Pediatrics, vol.
Water intoxication after 15 minutes of transurethral resection of the prostate.
A case report of the consequences of water intoxication. Case Rep Psychiatry.
(6) The tragic case of Anna Wood, an Australian teenager who died of acute water intoxication after taking ecstasy, indicates the need to remain vigilant regarding excessive water consumption." However, as the probability of hyperhydration is low, no upper limit on fluid consumption is present in the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's (MHMRC) guidelines.
Over-drinking can cause potentially fatal water intoxication. The study challenges the popular idea that we should drink eight glasses of water a day for health.
Thankfully it is an extremely rare occurrence but people, often those involved in sports, can suffer from 'water intoxication' when the amount of water they drink dilutes levels of sodium in their blood, causing nausea, dizziness and, in extreme cases, swelling of the brain and death.
Repeating oxytocin 40 U in a 1,000-mL infusion over 15 minutes carries the risk of water intoxication due to the antidiuretic effect.
However, water intoxication is a very real possibility in these situations.
According to the AAP, watering down formula can cause malnourished infants to develop water intoxication, which can be a cause of neonatal seizures.