- Al - diyah and Al - aqila (wergild
or blood money to rescue an accused involved in accidental killing).
The first Constitution in Medina (622 CE) arranged by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) contained three aspects directly related to risk protection: social insurance for the Jews, Ansar and Christians; Article 3 concerning 'wergild
or 'blood money'; and provision for Fidyah (ransom) and 'aaqila.
aeblaece 'lustreless', aegilde 'receiving no wergild
as compensation', aelaete 2 'desert'
For example, the Anglo-Saxon legal code substituted payment of wergild
, which is defined as a value for person or property.
(1) acoeglod 'studded with pegs; locked with a key', agimmed 'set with precious stones', anhyrned 'having one horn', oehtboren 'born in bondage', feowertynenihte 'fourteen nights old', gesperod 'armed with a spear', mylenscearp 'sharpened on a grindstone', symbelwlonc 'elated with feasting', toefle 'given to dice-playing', twihynde 1 'having wergild
of 200 shillings'.
(6) If the wrongdoer killed another man, he was bound to pay the man's family a certain price, which was his wergild
, or "man-payment," based upon the deceased's social rank.
Historically-minded writers from Innes (1913) to Miller (2008) have argued that systems of credit and debt evolved out of the elaborate North German wergild
system which used 'fines' and 'debt' to adjudicate tribal blood feuds.