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The hunting of whales for food, oil, or both.

The hunting of whales by Eskimos and Native Americans began around 100 a.d. in North America. In Europe the systematic hunting of whales began during the Middle Ages and greatly expanded in the seventeenth century. Whaling was driven by the desire to procure whale oil and sperm oil. Whale oil comes from baleen whales and is an edible product that was used in the making of margarine and cooking oil. Sperm oil, which comes from sperm whales, was used for illuminating lamps, as an industrial lubricant, and as a component of soaps, cosmetics, and perfumes.

During the nineteenth century, the U.S. whaling fleet dominated the world industry. Most of the seven hundred U.S. ships sailed out of New Bedford and Nantucket, Massachusetts. However, the industry went into a steep decline with the discovery and exploitation of petroleum during the late nineteenth century. Though new uses for sperm oil were developed, the U.S. fleet gradually disappeared.

In the early twentieth century, concerns were raised about the dwindling whale population. An international movement to regulate the hunting of whales met resistance from Scandinavian countries and Japan, but in 1931 the League of Nations convened a Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. It proved unsuccessful because several important whaling states refused to participate.

Annual international whaling conferences led to the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946, which established the International Whaling Commission (IWC). The IWC was charged with the conservation of whale stocks. It limited the annual Antarctic kill and created closed areas and hunting seasons throughout the world. Despite these initiatives and others over the years, the whale population edged closer to extinction, and the IWC agreed in 1982 to prohibit commercial whaling beginning in 1986. Commercial whaling has continued, however, often under the fiction of capturing specimens for scientific research.

In 1990 a scientific study was begun to determine if the whaling Moratorium should be lifted. Though the study indicated that whale populations were growing, in 1993 the United States refused to agree to a resumption of commercial whaling, and the IWC agreed. The United States warned that if a country (primarily Japan, Norway, or Iceland) ignored the IWC conservation program and resumed commercial whaling without IWC approval, that country's actions would be reviewed, and sanctions would be considered where appropriate.

Further readings

Freeman, Milton M. R., et al. 1998. Inuit, Whaling, and Sustainability. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press.


Environmental Law; Fish and Fishing.

References in periodicals archive ?
com/news/articles/2016-01-13/hacker-group-attacks-japan-corporate-websites-over-whale-killing) Bloomberg that the company's website was inaccessible to the public and also said that Nissan had no connection with whale hunting.
The International Whaling Commission (IWC) is the international organization responsible for regulating whale hunting.
His study is grounded in thorough historical research on European and Aboriginal whale hunting to set the background for his specific archaeological investigation of a shore whaling site at Cheyne Beach, 50 kilometres north-east of Albany.
WDSF and ProWal are sharply criticizing the government of the Faroe Islands and are demanding an immediate halt to all whale hunting.
Greenpeace members on Monday protest Japan government for it has taken under arrest two Greenpeace activist while they were trying to uncover the Japanese government bribe scandal to prevent the revealing the whale hunting.
Proud to be Inuvialuit" is a beautiful photo-essay about a traditional community of Beluga whale hunting Inuvialuit in Tuk, short for Tuktoyaktuk, on the Arctic coast of the Northwest Territories of Canada.
The moratorium, in force since 1986, advocates a ban on whale hunting but tolerates traditional hunting and scientific hunting.
A standoff in negotiations on whale hunting emerged earlier in the day, with pro-whaling nations accusing opponents of failing to make concessions.
The IWC began on Monday a five-meeting in Morocco, one the most important since 1986, when a moratorium on whale hunting put an end to the killing of hundreds of animals each year.
Before whale hunting was banned in 1966, blue whale populations were exceptionally low, which meant that males had to work harder to find and attract female partners.
Hunting for scientific purposes is a legal loophole that Japan uses to avoid the moratorium on commercial whale hunting in place since 1986.
On 5 June, the EU Council of environment ministers had adopted the mandate for negotiation entrusted to the European Commission for the meeting in Santiago, confirming on this occasion that the EU will continue to defend the principle of a total ban on whale hunting within the IWC.