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The hunting of whales for food, oil, or both.

The hunting of whales by Eskimos and Native Americans began around 100 a.d. in North America. In Europe the systematic hunting of whales began during the Middle Ages and greatly expanded in the seventeenth century. Whaling was driven by the desire to procure whale oil and sperm oil. Whale oil comes from baleen whales and is an edible product that was used in the making of margarine and cooking oil. Sperm oil, which comes from sperm whales, was used for illuminating lamps, as an industrial lubricant, and as a component of soaps, cosmetics, and perfumes.

During the nineteenth century, the U.S. whaling fleet dominated the world industry. Most of the seven hundred U.S. ships sailed out of New Bedford and Nantucket, Massachusetts. However, the industry went into a steep decline with the discovery and exploitation of petroleum during the late nineteenth century. Though new uses for sperm oil were developed, the U.S. fleet gradually disappeared.

In the early twentieth century, concerns were raised about the dwindling whale population. An international movement to regulate the hunting of whales met resistance from Scandinavian countries and Japan, but in 1931 the League of Nations convened a Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. It proved unsuccessful because several important whaling states refused to participate.

Annual international whaling conferences led to the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946, which established the International Whaling Commission (IWC). The IWC was charged with the conservation of whale stocks. It limited the annual Antarctic kill and created closed areas and hunting seasons throughout the world. Despite these initiatives and others over the years, the whale population edged closer to extinction, and the IWC agreed in 1982 to prohibit commercial whaling beginning in 1986. Commercial whaling has continued, however, often under the fiction of capturing specimens for scientific research.

In 1990 a scientific study was begun to determine if the whaling Moratorium should be lifted. Though the study indicated that whale populations were growing, in 1993 the United States refused to agree to a resumption of commercial whaling, and the IWC agreed. The United States warned that if a country (primarily Japan, Norway, or Iceland) ignored the IWC conservation program and resumed commercial whaling without IWC approval, that country's actions would be reviewed, and sanctions would be considered where appropriate.

Further readings

Freeman, Milton M. R., et al. 1998. Inuit, Whaling, and Sustainability. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press.


Environmental Law; Fish and Fishing.

References in periodicals archive ?
The only known painting of a Liverpool whaling ship is Success to the James of Liverpool.
As a young man, Finney crewed on whaling ships from 1830-57.
"A lot of whaling ships left from Hull, Whitby and Newcastle, with experienced crews being picked up in the Orkneys and Shetland Islands, so there is certainly a great connection to this region.
Earlier this week, the US Circuit Court of Appeals ordered Sea Shepherd to stop its aggression against Japanese whaling ships, describing the protesters' tactics as piracy.
The whaling ships' logs include records from a fleet owned by the Newcastle-based Palmer family, Royal Navy logbooks and data from the Hudson Bay Company, one of the oldest commercial companies in the world.
Other times the boats form a blockade, preventing whaling ships from loading their hauls aboard or frustrating them enough to induce them to turn home.
He called on Australia to contribute to the protection given to Japanese whaling ships.
The company that operates Japan's whaling ships blamed Sea Shepherd for the recent skirmishes, saying it was the protesters who escalated the attacks by ramming two Japanese vessels and pelting whalers with acid-filled glass bottles.
Furness built many whaling ships over the years, including Sir James Clark Ross (1930), The Svend Foyn (1931) Vestfold (1931) Norhval (1945) Southern Venturer (1945) and Southern Harvester (1946).
This work of historical fiction is filled with descriptions of the beautiful cold north of Greenland in the 17th century and of whaling ships and the men who served on them.