(redirected from White maggot)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.


A judicial officer who presides over civil hearings but usually does not have the authority or power to render judgment.

Referees are usually appointed by a judge in the district in which the judge presides. Referees aid the judge by hearing certain matters and by making recommendations concerning special or complicated issues. Judges generally delegate a portion of their judicial power to referees, who then report their recommendations to the judge concerning the issue.

The English chancery master was the fore-runner of the present-day referee. In eighteenth-century England, the chancellor courts used special masters to aid the chancery in handling its expanding Equity jurisdiction. Accordingly, the chancery master aided the chancellor only in equitable matters, such as marriage dissolutions, trust matters, and financial accountings. U.S. jurisdictions adopted the use of special masters or referees modeled on the English chancery master.

In most jurisdictions a referee must be an attorney. Nevertheless, in some complex property or financial matters, a judge may appoint a person who is not an attorney to preside over a dispute and to make recommendations. The term reference usually refers to the trial and determination of issues arising in a civil action by a person appointed for that purpose by the court. An order of reference, which is also called a referral order, is the court order that appoints the referee to hear and recommend action on the issues that are specified in the order.

Judges generally appoint a referee to hear complicated matters, such as financial accountings, property lien issues, or business valuation disputes. Many jurisdictions also have referees who are appointed to hear specified special-jurisdiction matters, such as Family Law, trust and probate, and pretrial discovery disputes. Parties to an action may agree to have a matter heard by a referee. In some jurisdictions the parties' consent to the appointment of a referee to hear the matter may result in the parties' waiver of any right to a jury trial.

A referee makes recommendations to the judge or court that appoints the referee but generally does not issue enforceable orders. A referee generally cannot render judgment in a case. The referee's general duty is to provide a report to the appointing judge on the issues of fact or law that prompted the referee's appointment. It has been said that "nothing can originate before a referee, and nothing can terminate with or by the decision of a referee." Referees generally serve at the pleasure of the judge and accordingly hold less judicial authority than the appointing judge. As a judicial officer, a referee is subject to the Code of Judicial Conduct.

In some jurisdictions a referee may be called a Special Master, court commissioner, or a magistrate. The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, for example, allow for the appointment of a "master," who can be a referee, an auditor, an examiner, or an assessor. Generally, however, the duties of a master are the same as those of a referee, and the appointing judge may limit the master's powers to report only on specified issues or to perform only particular acts. The federal judiciary also uses magistrate judges—judicial officers who perform a broad range of delegated or statutory duties, such as presiding over initial hearings in criminal cases, misdemeanor trials, pretrial proceedings, and the trial of civil cases. The Federal Magistrate Act of 1968 (Pub. L. No. 90-578, 82 Stat. 1107 [codified at 28 U.S.C.A. §§ 604, 631–639]) created the current system of federal magistrate judges and governs the duties of such magistrates.

Further readings

Sinclair, Kent, Jr. 1996. Practice Before Federal Magistrates. New York: Bender.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


n. a person to whom a judge refers a case to take testimony or acquire other evidence such as financial records and report to the court on the referee's findings. (See: master)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.

REFEREE. A person to whom has been referred a matter in dispute, in order that he may settle it. His judgment is called an award. Vide Arbitrator; Reference.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
CARR MILL DAM, St Helens 01744 602037: Look for skimmer bream along the sunshine section (pegs 70-80) and at the main run-off where ground-bait feeders with red pinkies and white maggots are most popular.
More worryingly, some maggot suppliers are still using the powerful dye, which is added as powder to white maggots and thus easily transferred on to an angler's skin.
I'd now sized down to a size 18 hook with two white maggots and had my first bite.
I'd brought red and white maggots, casters, worms and bread with me as hook bait.
Dried up patches appear at the fruit's stalk end and small white maggots are often seen inside the fruits.
Baits were changed to two white maggots, one red, one white and back to two red maggots.
He drew peg eight on the blackboards and the moment the whistle sounded to start, he dumped a pint of white maggots 13 metres out, where the bottom of the ledge meets the canal bed.
I baited up with two red luminous maggots while Geoff put on two white maggots.
CARR MILL DAM, St Helens: Very slow during the week but expect skimmers along the sunshine section and at the main run-off where ground bait feeders with red pinkies and white maggots are most popular.
I changed bait to a large worm and two white maggots and cast out again.
CARR MILL DAM,St Helens: Very slow during the week but expect skimmers to appear along the sunshine section and at the main run-off where ground bait feeders with red pinkies and white maggots are most popular.
Simon's swim was six feet of pacy water running over gravel and he tackled it with a stick float rig and two white maggots on a size 19 hook tied to 2lb line.