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The potential change in spike gene is consistent with the fact that early contactors (P002, P009, and P010) with P001 also carried the wild-type virus, but most of the subsequent patients, including 2 superspreaders (P014 and P016), were infected with I529T mutant viruses.
The wild-type virus A/South Africa/3626/2013 (H1N1) (SA/wt) was obtained from The National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC, UK) repository; A/New York/61/2015 (H1N1) (NY/wt) viruses were obtained from the repository of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (Atlanta, GA, USA).
Analyzed sequences of the 5' and 3' termini and restriction sites were identical to the wild-type virus.
Of the two GT3 patients with biologic failures, one did not have baseline RAVs and also had wild-type virus at relapse.
Herein, the siRNAi were effective to inhibit replication of HSV-1 in a strain adapted in cell culture (KOS) and also in wild-type virus isolated directly from an infected patient with high viral load.
Slow speed of kill of wild-type baculoviruses when compared to chemical insecticides is a serious disadvantage that has promoted the development of large number of recombinant baculoviruses, mainly with genes encoding insect-specific toxins from scorpions or spiders, which kill insects faster than the parent wild-type virus. However, uptill today no recombinant baculovirus-based pesticides are commercially available.
In addition, the virus used in the vaccine has been labeled with unique markers to differentiate it from wild-type virus found in outbreaks.
The reprogrammed virus no longer infects the cells usually targeted by the wild-type virus, nor does it cause herpes-related pathologies.
Subsequent studies in a model of virus-induced labyrinthitis, comparing a recombinant GPCMV deleted of the GPCMV MIP gene with wild-type virus, indicated a potential role for this CK in pathogenesis, insofar as the "knock-out" virus demonstrated reduction both in the magnitude of hearing loss and in cochlear inflammation, following direct inoculation of the guinea pig cochlea via the round window [15, 16].
One study showed the drug-resistant strains were less pathogenic than wild-type virus, whereas the other study found that the drug-resistant and wild-type viruses had similar pathogenicity.
(7) This is due to the potential for an upwards shift in age of rubella infection because of the reduction of wild-type virus circulation and its consequent reduction in population immunity, resulting in increasing numbers of vulnerable women in the childbearing age group susceptible to a still-present reservoir of circulating wild-type virus.
Because they resemble actual infectious particles presenting proteins in the same conformation as on the wild-type virus, they are able to induce a potent immune response.