working time


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working time

in the law of the EU as applied by Member States, any period during which the worker is working, at the employer's disposal and carrying out his activities or duties, in accordance with national laws and practices. The average working time for each seven-day period, including overtime, generally must not exceed 48 hours. The UK government managed to secure an opt-out provision by which for the first seven years of the directive coming into force, workers can voluntarily continue to work more than 48 hours a week but not under compulsion. The directive requires that every worker is entitled to a minimum daily rest period of 11 consecutive hours per 24-hour period (Article 3). The directive also requires that Member States take the measures necessary to ensure that per each seven-day period, every worker is entitled to a minimum uninterrupted rest period of 24 hours plus the 11 hours' daily rest. A rest period is any period that is not working time, e.g. the lunch hour. Workers are generally entitled to four weeks' annual leave and at least a week of it in one block. The employer can decide, subject to detailed rules, when the leave can be taken. If a worker is required to work for more than six hours at a stretch, he or she is entitled to a rest break of 20 minutes.
References in periodicals archive ?
The obligation to keep a record of working time in no way interferes with the flexibility of the organization of work and working time with an individual employer.
The UK made submissions to the ECJ that including travel time as working time would increase costs.
It is important to note that the decision impacts on working time for the purposes of the Working Time Regulations 1998.
The non-statutory guidance on GOV.uk stated that time spent travelling for work, such as travelling sales reps or 24-hour plumbers, is working time but that normal travel to and from work is not.
As a method of working time measurement, a photography of working day has been chosen [9], as one of the methods of constant observation [13].
The research has been determined the optimal structure of a daily working time for a top manager, using math games theory and taking in consideration the Mintzberg model.
other factors contributing to fatigue--stress, health problems and a lack of support--were more prevalent amongst the self-employed." It continued: "A reduction in working time could undoubtedly help reduce fatigue.
The move follows a European Court ruling two years ago declaring that "inactive, on-call" working time - doctors on duty but sleeping in hospitals for instance - had to count as working time.
3.5 This chapter argues that reform of the labour market needs to combine measures to restore incentives for firms to hire workers and for workers to stay as long as possible on the labour market, ensure that employers and employees have greater ability to negotiate working time, and improve the efficiency of services for employment so as to reduce long term unemployment.
Using Australian industry-level data on weekly hours of work and frequency of new workers' compensation claims for work-related accidents over the 1990s, we examine the relationship between working time and work-related injuries is examined.
WORKING TIME AND WORKER PREFERENCES IN INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES: FINDING THE BALANCE J.C.